In simple words, oals indicate and give direction to an employee about what needs to be done and how much efforts are required to be put in. Locke’s theory operates on the premise that individuals create goals by making careful decisions to do so and are compelled toward those goals by virtue of the goal having been set. Basically, Locke’s theory states that if an individual sets goals, he will be motivated to achieve those goals by virtue of having set them. Several elements must exist in order for the goal-setting effect to take place.
Goals must be clear, challenging and attainable, and there must be some method of receiving feedback. Locke finds that the goal itself is not the motivator, but rather the perceived difference between what was actually attained and what had been planned for. The goal setting theory is a technique used to raise incentives so that students will complete work quickly and effectively, it will be of help to graduates who are conducting their review and preparations for the board exam. It leads to better performance by increasing motivation and efforts, but also through increasing and improving the feedback quality.
The Cognitive Learning Theory explained why the brain is the most incredible etwork of information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things. This theory are divided into two specific theories: the Social Cognitive Theory, and the Cognitive Behavioral Theory. In the Social Cognitive Theory, there are 3 variables considered: behavioral factors, environmental factors (extrinsic) and personal factors (intrinsic). These 3 variables in Social Cognitive Theory are said to be interrelated with each other, causing learning to occur.
An individual’s personal experience can converge with the behavioral determinants and the environmental factors. Cognitive Behavioral Theory describes the role of cognition (knowing) to determining and predicting the behavioral pattern of an individual. This theory was developed by Aaron Beck. The Cognitive Behavioral Theory says that individuals tend to form self-concepts that affect the behavior they display. These concepts can be positive or negative and can be affected by a person’s environment. In the cognitive process of a person, it is affected by factors like behavioral, environmental, and personal.
This factors are should be considered to increase the student’s performance in preparing for the board exam. One’s cognitive competencies are modified by external factors such as a supportive parent, stressful environment or a hot climate. So if a student have a pleasant environment, he will have a positive behavior therefore increasing his/her performance. Related Literature Electronics Engineering Electronic engineering as a profession sprang from technological improvements in the telegraph industry in the late 1 9th century and the radio and the telephone industries in the early 20th century.
People were attracted to radio by the technical fascination it inspired, first in receiving and then in transmitting. Many who went into broadcasting in the 1 920s were only ‘amateurs’ in the period before World War l. The modern discipline of electronic engineering was to a large extent born out of telephone, radio, and television equipment development and the large amount of electronic systems development during World War II of radar, sonar, communication systems, and advanced munitions and weapon systems.
In the interwar years, the subject was known as radio engineering and it was only in the late 1950s that the term electronic engineering started to emerge. In the field of electronic engineering, engineers design and test circuits that use the lectromagnetic properties of electrical components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality. The tuner circuit, which allows the user of a radio to filter out all but a single station, is just one example of such a circuit.
In designing an integrated circuit, electronics engineers first construct circuit schematics that specify the electrical components and describe the interconnections between them. When completed, VLSI engineers convert the schematics into actual layouts, which map the layers of various conductor and semiconductor materials needed to construct the circuit. The conversion from schematics to layouts can be done by software but very often requires human fine-tuning to decrease space and power consumption. Once the layout is complete, it can be sent to a fabrication plant for manufacturing.
Integrated circuits and other electrical components can then be assembled on printed circuit boards to form more complicated circuits. Today, printed circuit boards are found in most electronic devices including televisions, computers and audio players. Electronic engineering has many subfields. This section describes some of the most popular subfields in electronic engineering; lthough there are engineers who focus exclusively on one subfield, there are also many who focus on a combination of subfields. Signal processing deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals.
Signals can be either analog, in which case the signal varies continuously according to the information, or digital, in which case the signal varies according to a series of discrete values representing the information. For analog signals, signal processing may involve the amplification and filtering of audio signals for audio equipment or the modulation and demodulation of signals for telecommunications. For digital ignals, signal processing may involve the compression, error checking and error detection of digital signals.
Telecommunications engineering deals with the transmission of information across a channel such as a co-axial cable, optical fiber or free space. Transmissions across free space require information to be encoded in a carrier wave in order to shift the information to a carrier frequency suitable for transmission, this is known as modulation. Popular analog modulation techniques include amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. The choice of modulation affects the cost and performance of a ystem and these two factors must be balanced carefully by the engineer.
Once the transmission characteristics of a system are determined, telecommunication engineers design the transmitters and receivers needed for such systems. These two are sometimes combined to form a two-way communication device known as a transceiver. A key consideration in the design of transmitters is their power consumption as this is closely related to their signal strength. If the signal strength of a transmitter is insufficient the signal’s information will be corrupted by noise.
Control engineering has a wide range of applications rom the flight and propulsion systems of commercial airplanes to the cruise control present in many modern cars. It also plays an important role in industrial automation. Control engineers often utilize feedback when designing control systems. For example, in a car with cruise control the vehicle’s speed is continuously monitored and fed back to the system which adjusts the engine’s power output accordingly. Where there is regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system responds to such feedback.
Apart from electromagnetics and network theory, other items in the syllabus are particular o electronics engineering course. Electrical engineering courses have other specialisms such as machines, power generation and distribution. Note that the following list does not include the extensive engineering mathematics curriculum that is a prerequisite to a degree. Electromagnetics Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector.
Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; mpedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations. Antennas: Dipole antennas; antenna arrays; radiation pattern; reciprocity theorem, antenna gain. Network analysis Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis.
Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks. Electronic devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. -n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BIT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-i-n and avalanche photo diode, LASERS. Device technology: integrated circuit fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process. Analog circuits: Equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of diodes, BJTs, JFETs, and MOSFETs. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi- stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency response of amplifiers.
Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits, Power supplies. Digital circuits: of Boolean functions; logic gates digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift- registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor 8086: architecture, programming, memory and 1/0 interfacing.
Signals and systems Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous- time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, z-transform. Sampling theorems. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through L Tl systems. Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density, function analogy between vectors ; functions.
Control systems Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams ” Mason’s rule. Open loop and closed loop (negative unity eedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of L Tl control systems and frequency response. Analysis of steady- state disturbance rejection and noise sensitivity. Tools and techniques for L Tl control system analysis and design: root loci, Routt-I-Hurwitz stability criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.
Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller (PID). Discretization of continuous time systems using Zero-order hold (ZOH) and ADCs for digital controller implementation. Limitations of digital controllers: aliasing. State variable representation and solution of state equation of L Tl control systems. Linearization of Nonlinear dynamical systems with state-space realizations in both frequency and time domains. Fundamental concepts of controllability and observability for MIMO LTI systems. State space realizations: observable and controllable canonical form.
Ackermann’s formula for state- feedback pole placement. Design of full order and reduced order estimators. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and emodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne noise conditions. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM), Delta modulation (DM), digital modulation schemes-amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes, GSM, TDMA.
Electronics Engineering (ECE) Philippine Licensure Board Examination I’m kinda disappointed because I won’t be able to take the board exam this coming October 29, 2011. It will be difficult to take it on April next year (we have two ECE licensure examination per year) because there will only be few of us who will take the exam. Why I say it’s difficult? Because in the coaching/refresher stage*, we have to memorize a lot of questions. We are given a Powerpoint presentation which flashes a sequence of Question and Answer pairs. You have to memorize all those pairs for 3 hours!
We are not allowed to copy the questions trough pen and paper or any recording and storage devices. All you can do is memorize it and to be efficient there has to be many of you obviously. Why do we need to emorize to question and answer pair? Because my fellow schoolmates who have already taken the exam say that those question and answer pairs may come out on the actual exam. Gees . Wait, do the review center know what questions will come out? Well if you ask me, maybe yes! LOL! But let me tell you this, as what my schoolmates said, some of the questions in the exam are really hard or “Out Of This World” type.
You will be more happy to know that those review centers have those “secret notes”. Others ever call it violently as, “leakage”. The preparation in the review centers is 5 months usually. First 3 months is for the eview session and the next two months is for the coaching/refresher period. The refresher is mostly focused in the problem solving part of GEAS, EST, Electronics and of course in Mathematics. The coaching is when the question and answer pairs are flashed. Some call it flashing. E-review are review sessions done on the computer. E-review by the way is a brand name for electronic review of a certain review center.
Related Studies Title: The Effect Of Study Habits On The Academic Performance of Freshmen Education Students In Xavier University, Cagayan De Oro City, School Year 2008-2009 Venue: Xavier University, Cagayan De Oro City Variables: Time Management, Learning Skills, Study Skills, Study Habits Conclusion: The researchers believes that students, particularly Xavier Universitywill be benefited from the findings of this study since the study providesbasis for awareness and better understanding of how their current studyhabits affected their academic performance.
Likewise gives them a morefocused and clear perspective on how the specific behaviours related totheir studies influenced study habits. Consequently, this awareness alsogives a much deeper understanding of their selves as students consideringthat the ollege life is typically beset of developmental adjustment demands.
Research Paradigm Independent Variable Board Exam Related Factors * # of exams taken * conditional exam * passed exam Person Related Factors * age * gender School Related Factors * curriculum * facilities * instructors educational attainment Figure 1: Paradigm of the Study Conceptual Framework Dependent Variable The conceptual framework of the study is illustrated in research paradigm shown in figure 1 . The independent variable considered in the study are the person related factors which are the age and gender, and the school related actors which are curriculum, facilities, and instructor’s educational attainment.
While the dependent variables considered in this study are the grade point average, and the board exam related factors which are the numbers of exams taken, conditional exam and passed exam. The goal of this study is to enumerate the factors affecting the passing rate of those students who took the ECE board examinations which will serve as a guide for future ECE students who will also take the exam and to better understand what preparations should they make. Hypothesis The lone null hypothesis is that there is no significant relationship between the erson related and school related factors on the passing rate of ECE Board Examinees.
Definition of Terms For a clearer understanding of the present study, the variables included are conceptually defined. Age. A period of human life, measured by years from birth, usually marked by a certain stage or degree of mental or physical development and involving legal responsibility and capacity. Gender. Refers to the differences between men and women. Curriculum. The regular or a particular course of study in a school, college, etc. Facilities. Something designed, built, installed, etc. , to serve aspecific function affo ding a convenience or service. Educational Attainment.
Is a term commonly used by statisticians to refer to the highest degree of education an individual has completed. Grade Point Average. a measure of scholastic attainment computed by dividing the total number of grade points received by the total number of credits or hours of course work taken. Exam. The test itself; the list of questions asked. Conditional. lmposing, containing, subject to, or depending on a conditionor cond itions; not absolute; made or allowed on certainterms Passed. Having received a passing grade on an examination or test or uccessfully completed a school course, year, or program of study.