1997 : Dario Fo

1997 : Dario Fo

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“who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden”



March 24, 1926

Place of birth


Sangiano, Italy







Notable award(s)


Nobel Prize in Literature 1997


For the son of Felice and Pina Rota, known for their anti-fascist activities, he was forced to call ahead, after trying to evade, and voluntarily commit to 17 years in 1943 as a paratrooper in the adventurous Republic of Salo, knowing that it was the only way to avoid retaliation on his family. A controversy has long opposed on this point to a journalist in 1975.

He was released in 1950 from the Academy of Fine Arts of Brera in Milan, where he studied architecture, including the staging, particularly obsessed by the major machinery of the Renaissance. It also cultivates his talent as a painter.

He started on the radio (Sette Giorni a Milano and Rosso e Nero) and television, where he plays, with its emphasis Lombard satirical monologues he wrote, frescoes delusional most often.

Starting from 1952, with Parenti and Durano, he tries as an actor in plays to comic sketches, with absurd situations, the text fast, played with millimetric precision: “It nell’occhio dito.” There he met wife Franca Rame in Milan in the basilica Sant’Ambrogio, 24 June 1954.

With it, he left for Rome, where he was hired to assist in the staging of several films from 1955 to 1958: Svitato (1956), Remembrance of Italy (1957), Nata di Marzo (1958).

Meanwhile, he founded with Franca Rame their theater company, and created short pieces, inspired by Feydeau or Labiche for the mechanical stage and Chaplin or Tati for the characters. It also plays Shakespeare and Moliere, as well as traditional farces, regional directory Franca Rame.

In 1959, his play The archangels do not play pinball (Gli Arcangeli giocano not a flipper), written in twenty days, propelled in an international career, one new piece each fall, until 1967.

As for style, improvisation and logorrhee word, the gags, physical performance, a logical and popular regional accents are the trademark of his theater and a glance at some commedia dell’arte. There is also a remarkable sense of the economy and invention in the use of rare materials. Often in Fo, which features its own coins, the same player interprets several characters (reference to the ancient Greek theater) but with a mask, an accoutrement or makeup deliberately artificial, deliberately simple and trivial buffoon.

On the merits, comedy and satire, the social burden is still present, frequently censorship, which proved particularly fierce in 1962 for a television broadcast, Canzonissima, where the couple is Fo-Rame media lynching, because we still tolerate they should laugh at small theaters, but the message corrosive become worried they might get with the media.

Conviction “anti-bourgeois”, refusing to continue his role as jester of the bourgeoisie, they bring the theater in factories and houses of people, inspired by the idea of the NPT National Popular Theater and parts of Brecht. Spectators often for the first time see a room.

After 1968, the company is organized into cooperatives to avoid controls as well as economic censorship. Spectators become members and each piece is followed by a discussion. The themes are more explicitly political, more provocative. Great Pantomima con Bandieri e pupazzi piccoli e media is one of the emblematic of this period.

Franca Rame reported that arrived during this period as the bishop of Vicenza asked the police to pull all the posters of their show or refusing cuts imposed in the text by the censors, they still played the original risking immediate arrest. The manuscript of Arcangeli would have been the subject of 280 complaints and requests for censorship, the police, every time the piece was played. Dario For was even challenged to a duel by a military that will not bear replicas mocking of the military in the history of Christopher Columbus redesigned in Isabella, tre e un caravel cacciaballe

In 1969, Mistero Buffo is a one-man show inspired by medieval mystery. The piece uses frequently Grammelot, a language few understand and vehement, which only certain passages, sometimes dialect, are vaguely understood and takes the characters under strong emotions. The Grammelot inevitably arouses laughter and public complicity. For reinvests the Italian tradition of commedia dell’arte.

The red tape attract an ever larger. For the group creates Nuova Scena in a hangar and more subscribers, from the first season, the Piccolo Teatro of Milan. The place is also a place for lively discussions. He also founded the group to develop the Comune street theater, and departing from the Communist Party.

Inspired by a real incident in 1970, Morte di un Accidental anarchico given with humor and panache, his version of the foolish case of anarchist Giuseppe Pinelli, whose custody, the Questura of Milan, had resulted defenestration by a poorly explained. The anarchist would be one of those characters in so-called “crazy” or “buffoons”, that Dario For and loves it uses frequently in his plays for the absurd comic effects it can create with and to circumvent censorship .

Dario For managed to wrestle both with external pressures, internal dissent that the group (which separated in 1972), while managing to write several pieces a year. Franca Rame will even be kidnapped by extremists on the right.

In 1974 he opens his own theater room with its successful Do not pay.

In 1977, its main parts finally go on television in a cycle entitled “theater of Dario For,” which is known to the general public. There is even some time in the hit parade as a lyricist. Indeed, many parts are accompanied by songs.

Unconventional, provocative, politically committed to the far left, it has many trouble with the law of Italy and the Vatican as the Italian Communist Party. Forbidden to stay in the United States in 1980, he received the Sonning prize in 1981 and features Moliere in the French Comedy.

If the tolerance has increased, Dario For its expenses continues today, drawing more and more news. In 1989, Pope e la Strega is an anticlerical based on a law enforcement anti-drug. Before the commemoration of 1992, he again gave his vision for the adventure of Christopher Columbus with Joan Padan a la delle descoverta Americas.

He received international recognition for his extensive theatrical production by being awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1997, rewards surprise that shares the press and critics.

It also becomes one of the first foreign Satrap College ‘Pataphysics in 2001 including Umberto Eco.

In the 2000s, he wrote of charges against Silvio Berlusconi and his demelees judicial Ubu Roi, Ubu bass, and the dual anomalo.

Politically long, it comes before the elections of 29 January 2006 for mayor of Milan and obtains more than 23% of the votes, against Bruno Ferrante. It is now an alderman.

In 2006 he was appointed honorary doctorate from the prestigious University La Sapienza of Rome, just as Luigi Pirandello and Eduardo De Filippo before him.


Selected works in Italian:

  • Il dito nell’occhio, 1. rappr. Milano, 1953, pubbl. in Teatro d’oggi, 1954

  • I sani da legare, 1. rappr. Milano, 1954, pubbl. nella rivista teatr. Sipario, 1953

  • Ladri, manichini e donne nude, 1. rappr. Milano, 1957, pubbl. in Teatro Comico. Garzanti, 1962

  • Una grande scelta delle opere di Dario Fo e raccolta nella serie Le Commedie di Dario Fo, Einaudi, “Gli struzzi”, tra le altre:

  • Gli arcangeli non giocano a flipper, 1. rappr. Milano, 1959, publ. in Le commedie I, 1966

  • Isabella, tre caravelle e un cacciaballe, 1. rappr. Milano, 1963, pubbl. in Le commedie II, 1966

  • Ci ragiono e canto, 1. rappr. Milano, 1966, pubbl. in Le commedie V, 1977

  • La signora e da buttare, 1. rappr. Milano, 1967, pubbl. 1976 in Le commedie VII, 1988

  • Grande pantomima, 1. rappr. Milano, 1968, pubbl. in Le commedie III, 1975

  • Mistero buffo, 1. rappr. Milano, 1969, pubbl. in Le commedie V, 1977

  • Morte accidentale di un anarchico, 1. rappr. Milano, 1970, pubbl. in Le commedie VII, 1988

  • Non si paga! Non si paga!, 1. rappr. Milano, 1974. – Bertani, 1974

  • Johan Padan a la descoverta de le Americhe, 1. rappr. Milano, 1991. – Giunti, 1991

  • Clacson, trombette e pernacchi, 1. rappr. Milano, 1981

  • Il papa e la strega, 1. rappr. Milano, 1989

  • Il diavolo con le zinne, 1. rappr. Messina, 1997

  • Dario Fo parla di Dario Fo. – Lerici, 1977

  • Manuale minimo dell’attore. – Einaudi, 1987

  • Dario Fo. Dialogo provocatorio sul comico, il tragico, la follia e la ragione con Luigi Allegri. – Laterza, 1990

  • Le commedie di Dario Fo. 11, Storia vera di Piero d’Angera, che alla crociata non c’era. – Torino : Einaudi, 1997

  • Manuale minimo dell’attore. Dario Fo, a cura di Franca Rame. – Torino : Einaudi, 1997

  • Il diavolo con le zinne. Dario Fo, a cura di Franca Rame disegni originali di Dario Fo. – Torino : Einaudi, 1998

  • Marino libero! Marino e innocente! Dario Fo, a cura di Franca Rame. – Torino : Einaudi, 1998

  • Lu Santo Jullare Francesco. Dario Fo, a cura di Franca Rame. – Torino : Einaudi, 1999

  • La vera storia di Ravenna. Dario Fo. – Modena : Franco Cosimo Panini, 1999

  • Teatro. Dario Fo, a cura di Franca Rame ventisette disegni originale dell’autore. – Torino : Einaudi, 2000. (I millenni)

  • Lezioni di teatro. Dario Fo ; a cura di Felice Cappa. – Torino : Einaudi, 2001

  • Il paese dei mezarat : i miei primi sette anni (e qualcuno in piu). Dario Fo ; a cura di Franca Rame. – Milano : Feltrinelli, 2002

  • Il tempio degli uomini liberi : il Duomo di Modena. Dario Fo ; appunti per lezione-spettacolo a cura di Franca Rame. – Modena : F. C. Panini, 2004

  • Gesu e le donne / a cura di Franca Rame e Anna Dotti ; da un’ideadi nostro figlio Jacopo e di Laura Malucelli ; tavole e disegni di Dario Fo. – Milano : Rizzoli, 2007

Opere critiche:

  • Lanfranco Binni, Attento te…! Il teatro politico di Dario Fo. – Bertani, 1975

  • Chiara Valentini, La storia di Fo. – Feltrinelli, 1977

  • Paola Puppa, Il teatro di Fo. Dalla scena alla piazza. – Marsilio, 1978

  • Claudio Meldolesi, Su un comico in rivolta. Dario Fo il bufalo, il bambino. – Bulzoni, 1978

  • Rudolf Ladurner, Das Theater von Dario Fo. Diss. – Wien, 1981

  • Dario Fo and Franca Rame: Theatre Workshops at Riverside Studios. – Red Notes, 1983

  • Tony Mitchell, Dario Fo: People’s Court Jester. – Methuen, 1984, rev. ed. 1986

  • David L. Hurst, Dario Fo and Franca Rame. – Macmillan, 1989

  • File on Fo, ed. by Simon Trussler.– Methuen, 1989

Translations into English:

  • Dario Fo. Plays: One. & Plays: Two, with introd. by Stuart Hood – Methuen, 1994

  • The Tale of a Tiger – Theatretexts, 1984

  • A Woman Alone and Other Plays. – Methuen, 1991

  • Acting Diana – Oberon Books, 1994

  • The Pope and the Witch. Translated by Joan Holden – London : Methuen Drama, 1992 – Uniform Title: Papa e la strega

  • Plays. With an introduction by series editor, Stuart Hood – London : Methuen Drama, 1997. 2 vol.

  • Contents: 1. Mistero Buffo. Translated by Ed Emery ; Accidental Death of an Anarchist. Translated by Ed Emery ; Trumpets and Raspberries. Translated by R.C. McAvoy and A.M. Giugni ; The Virtuous Burglar. Translated by Joe Farrell ; One was Nude and One Wore Tails. Translated by Ed Emery

  • Contents: 2. Can’t pay? Won’t pay?. Translated by Lino Pertile ; Elizabeth : almost by chance a woman. Translated by Gillian Hanna ; The open couple. Written with Franca Rame ; translated by Stuart Hood ; An Ordinary Day. Written with Franca Rame ; translated by Joe Farrell.

  • Notes: Vol. 2 has introduction also by Franca Rame. Originally published: London : Methuen Drama, 1992.

  • Johan Padan and the Discovery of the Americas. Translated from the Italian by Ron Jenkins with the assistance of Stefania Taviano – New York : Grove Press, cop. 2001 – Uniform Title: Johan Padan a la descoverta de le Americhe.

  • The Peasants Bible ; and, The story of the Tiger. Translated from the Italian by Ron Jenkins – New York : Grove Press, 2004 – Uniform Title: Bibbia dei villani.

  • My First Seven Years (Plus a Few More). Joe Farrell (trans) – London : Methuen, 2005 – Uniform Title: Il paese dei mezarat : i miei primi sette anni (e qualcuno in piu).

Critical studies:

  • Dario Fo and Franca Rame: Theatre Workshops at Riverside Studios – Red Notes, 1983

  • Tony Mitchell, Dario Fo: People’s Court Jester – Methuen, 1984, rev. ed. 1986

  • David L. Hurst, Dario Fo and Franca Rame – Macmillan, 1989

  • File on Fo, ed. by Simon Trussler – Methuen, 1989

  • Dario Fo : Stage, Text, and Tradition / edited by Joseph Farrell and Antonio Scuderi – Carbondale : Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 2000


1997: Nobel Prize in Literature.


The Birth of the Jongleur

GOOD PEOPLE, came Jongleur is here. WAG is that I jump and make EVOLUTION and that makes you laugh and making fun of the powerful and makes you see how stupid and inflated the posmunkar that go around and make war is and I get them to make a smooth figure before you, I take the cork out of them and … Peace … so goes the air out of them. Come here for it is now and at this location as I will be the buffoon, which I will teach you. I do a little jump, I do a little song, I do small tricks! Watch how the tongue goes, it resembles a knife, try to remember it. But I have not always been … This is what I want to tell you how I was born. I was born not as WAG, I did not hit like lightning from a clear sky, good afternoon, gokvall, no! I am the fruit of a miracle. A miracle made by me. Would you believe me? It is so! I was born as a peasant. Peasant! A real farmer. I was sad and happy, I had no land, I went and worked, as all of these valleys, everywhere. And one day I saw this near a mountain, but of stone. It belonged to no one, I was told, I asked. No! Nobody wants this mountain! Then I went and looked, I scraped with nails and I saw that there was little ground and I saw that there was a jet of water that flowed down and then I started to scrape and then I came up to the river, I tore with these arms and I bore the earth. There were kids and my wife. She is my lovely wife, white, she has two round breasts and her time … She has a soft approach similar to the reed that moves. Oh! What she is beautiful, I love her and I want to talk about her. Earth bore me up in his arms and grass … I did PfP … so it came up completely. An over, it was the earth! It was a miracle! There were popplar, oaks and trees everywhere. I was accustomed, I sowed when the moon was right, and it came up things to eat. Beautiful, good, sweet. There was salad, thistle, beans, turnips, it was everything. For me, for us. I was very happy, we danced and then it rained for days and the sun burned and I went and came, the moon was right and it was never too much wind or too much fog. It was beautiful! Beautiful! O it was our land. Beautiful was the stair landings. Every day I did something, it looks like a Tower of Babel, with these beautiful terraces. It was paradise. Paradise on Earth! I swear. And all the farmers who passed said: – What a fluke that you have, what he has been out of a stenros … I am miserable not thought about it. And they were jealous. One day came patron, the owner of the entire valley past, looked and said: – Whose is this earth? – My, I said to him, I have done it with these hands, it belonged to nobody. – No? It is my! – No! It is not yours! I have been in the notary also, it belonged to nobody. I have asked the priest, it belonged to nobody, and I have done it piece by piece. – It is my, it is mine, and you have to give me that. – I can not give you that, I can no more go and work in a cartridge. – I pay you for it, tell me how much you want. – No! I do not want money if you give me money so I can not buy another farm for the money you give to me and then I would have to go and work in a cartridge and I do not! No! I do not want to!

Presentation Speech:

Presentation Speech by Professor Sture Allen of the Swedish Academy, December 10, 1997.

Your Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses, Ladies and Gentlemen,To be a jester is, and always has been, a serious matter. Swedish mediaeval laws stipulated that it cost a man smaller fines to lay violent hands on somebody from a neighbouring county than on a man from his own part of the country; but to assault a jester, on the other hand, cost him nothing at all. If a jester is beaten up, says the thirteenth-century law concerning such people, it shall not be counted an offence. If a jester comes to bodily harm, he shall have and suffer what was given him – infamy and injury. “Let him never appeal for more justice than a thral woman lashed on her bare back.”

One of Dario Fo’s sources of inspiration is exactly these mediaeval jesters, unprotected by any law. According to Fo satire is what makes the most forceful impact on man. Mixing laughter and seriousness is his way of telling the truth about abuses and unrighteousness. For Alfred Nobel literary achievements were important means for fulfilling the fundamental aim of the awards, namely to confer benefit on mankind. The maintenance of human dignity is unquestionably an essential aspect of this.

Fo often refers explicitly to the mediaeval joculatores and their comedy and mysteries. In fact, a central work in his oeuvre, “Mistero buffo” – “The Comic Mysteries” – is based on old material culled from many different quarters. In the scene called “The Birth of the Jester” the crucial moment occurs when a landlord avid for more land violates the wife of the man who is breaking untilled ground. “The Marriage at Cana” is seen from the point of view of the intoxicated wine-drinker. In “The Resurrection of Lazarus” the provocative question is whether Jesus will succeed.

There are several other sources. Furthest away in time we seem to glimpse Plautus and Terence in Rome, who were of renewed interest in fifteenth century Italy. The commedia dell’arte, a creation of the sixteenth century, is of importance with its set-character parts and its oral tradition. It is also possible to catch a sly glance from Bottom the weaver and Sir Andrew Aguecheek. Impulses from our own days come from Maiakovski’s epic-satirical poetry and from Brecht’s didactic theatre. Incidentally, it was from Maiakovski that Fo borrowed the title “Mistero Buffo”.

Another major achievement in Fo’s large production is “Accidental Death of an Anarchist”. The play is about the cross-examining following on the supposed accident. By and by the questioning is taken over, through a brilliantly carried out shift, by a Hamlet-like figure – il Matto – who has the kind of madness that exposes official falsehoods. All in all there are many topical allusions in Fo’s plays, but the texts transcend everyday situations and are given a far wider range of application.

One cannot hold it against Fo that he is a first-rate actor. The decisive thing is that he has written plays which arouse the enthusiasm of actors and which captivate his audiences. The texts are chiselled in an interplay with the spectators and have often been given their final shape over a long time. Rapidly changing situations give impetus to the plays and shape the characters. The rhythm of the actors’ lines, the witty wording and the aptitude for improvisation combine with strong intensity and artistic energy in the profoundly meaningful, steady flow of his flashes of wit. The printed texts can also give you this feeling it you give free range to your imagination. Fo’s work brings to the fore the multifarious abundance of the literary field.

His independence and perspicacity have made him run great risks and right enough he has been made to experience the consequences both at home and abroad. When on one occasion he and his wife, Franca Rame, had been stopped from making an agreed-on appearance abroad, their friends and colleagues arranged a representation which they called “An Evening without Dario Fo and Franca Rame”.

Looking backwards in time from Dario Fo, the ninety-fourth laureate for literature, to earlier writers given the award, it is tempting to arrest oneself at George Bernard Shaw, winner of the Prize seventy years ago. On that occasion the Swedish Academy emphasised the laureate’s idealism, humanity, and stimulating satire. The two writers are no doubt different from each other, but the same evaluative words can be applied to Dario Fo.

Dear Mr. Fo,The word dignity plays an important part in your oeuvre and is at the centre of the piece called “The Birth of the Jester”. The dignity bestowed on you today may have other attributes, but it has the same core. On behalf of the Swedish Academy I congratulate you warmly on the work which has resulted in the Nobel Prize in Literature 1997 and I ask you to step forward to receive the prize from the hands of His Majesty the King.

Nobel Lecture:

December 7, 1997

Contra Jogulatores Obloquentes

Against Jesters Who Defame and Insult

“Against jesters who defame and insult”. Law issued by Emperor Frederick II (Messina 1221), declaring that anyone may commit violence against jesters without incurring punishment or sanction.

The pictures I show you here, I myself have been signed and painted. You have pictures that are slightly reduced compared with those.

Yes, I have long been accustomed to make speeches with the help of photos. Instead of typing them, I write them. It allows me to improvise, to use my imagination and to force you to use your imagination.

While I read these texts, I will sometimes show you where we are, so you lose not remove you. In particular, this will be helpful for those who can neither Italian or Swedish. The English will have a tremendous advantage, for they will imagine things that I have neither said or thought. There is of course the problem with the two happiness and laughter here: those who understand Italian will laugh with the same, they have to wait for Anna (Anna Barsotti, the interpreter) translation into English in order to laugh, and the others who do not know whether to laugh first or second time. In any case, we start now.

Ladies and gentlemen, the title of this my speech is “contra jogulatores obloquentes” and you have all understood that this is Latin, medieval Latin. This is the title of a law that was issued in 1221 in Sicily by Emperor Frederick II of Swabia, the “Lord’s anointed”, which they produce in school as an enlightened, liberal and extraordinary emperor. You may now themselves, of the following – to assess whether he “GODLIKE” really was so liberal. “Jogulatores obloquentes” means “WAG which casts shame and taunting.” The law in question gave everyone permission to insult WAG, to flog them and – if it was a little irritated – even to kill them, without risking a trial and the subsequent conviction. I would immediately draw your attention to the fact that this law does not apply anymore. So I can calmly continue. Ladies and gentlemen … Some of my friends, the weather men and women and famous artists, has in various interviews in TV channels and newspapers declared: “The highest price this year will obviously go to the Swedish Academy members who had the courage to give the prize to a WAG!” Yes, what you have done is a courageous act that is approaching provocation. It is enough to look at the UPROAR it has accomplished: sublime poets and writers who normally flies high … and little value acquaint themselves with those who pull up down there on Earth … they found themselves suddenly thrown forward by some sort of cyclone. Yes, I applaud and agree with them. They were already saligt there on the elect Parnass, and with this you impudence gave you them to the ground, so that they coincided with the face and stomach of normality in the mud! The increased terrible shriek and okvadinsord, pointing at the Swedish Academy, against its members and their close and distant relatives down in the seventh stage. The most obeharskade yelled: “Down with the King of Norway …!” The mess was the mistake on the dynasty. Here you can turn the page … you can see that there is a picture of a naked poet who passed forward by a cyclone.

Someone had also proposed in the lower parts. Some poets and writers were terrible nervous crises and acute BLOOD. In those days you could not find any sedative longer in pharmacies in Italy. But it must be recognized, truth to tell, ladies and academy members, this time, you have exaggerated: you started course for a dozen years ago by giving the prize to a black … a colored. Then, you gave the prize to a Jew … and now with a WAG! … What is this? – Which napoletanarna says – “Pazziamme?” “Have we gone mad?” Also in the priesthood, there have been moments of madness … Just among the high pope lecturers: bishops, cardinals, prelates of Opus Dei brimming up great. So that they requested that the law gives permission to burn on pyres WAG would be reinstated, in a nice way: slowly roast them a little bit like that. In contrast, I must tell you that many wonderful people, however, has happily join me in an unbelievable way of this your choice. And I spend you the warmest thanks from a bunch of players task, WAG, clowns, acrobats and gatsangare. And speaking of gatsangare I can not forget storytellers in my village at Lago Maggiore, where I was born and raised and where there is a great historical tradition tells us. They, the old storytellers and glasblasarmastarna, taught me and the other boys crafts, art, to tell ridiculous stories. We listened to them and commented on by the sudden flat laughter and silence that are stuck in the throat, because of the tragic allegory as having even won every sarcasm. I can still remember the lord of the Caldeklippan. “For many years ago …”, told glasblasarmastaren, “on the steep top of the cliff that rises above the lake … there was a village named Calder shied away from, and day by day it collapsed down in its entirety to the bottom of the cliff. It was a splendid village with its church tower, with towers uppklangda top, with all the houses, one after the other. It was a village that was real and now, it’s no longer: in the 1400s disappeared it. “Hello …”, screamed the farmers and fishermen at the bottom of the valley for them, “guard you, you are about to crumble down … move down from there!” But clips residents listened not, on the contrary, the laughing, joking and ran with them: “You are cunning, you, you are trying to scare us to get us to flee, moving from here and leave the houses and our earth, so that you can then take over it themselves. Can we not. ” And they continued to crop vindruvsplantorna, cultivate fields, marry and love. They went to the fair. They knew that the rock glided away during husgrund of … but they did not care so much about it: “Normal touchdown movements …”, they assured each other. The large clips paragraph was to sink into the lake: “Beware, you have feet in the water!”, Screamed from the beach. “What, it is the waste water from fountains, it has just become a little wetter.” And so, slowly but inexorably, sink the entire village into the lake. LAP … LAP … Pluff … drops everything … houses, men, women, two horses, three donkeys … “Hiaaa Klucka … …” The priest continues oberort to confess a nun … ‘Te … absolvi animus … Santi … LAP … Aame … Klucka … “The tower is lost, the clock tower with bells fall:” Dong … Ding … Dip … Blopp … “. “Even today,” said the old glassblower, “if it leans out of the clip the tip sticking up at one point in the lake … and when a thunderstorm breaks out in the same moment, so successful lightning lit up the seabed and, unbelievably enough, one can view on the sinking of the village down there. And the houses and streets are still intact. And as in a live Nativity scene, we find them, the inhabitants of the old rock, which is still moving … and firmly and oberort repeat: ” It has not happened. “Fish passes in front of their eyes from all sides … even in the ears …” No problem! … There is only one kind of fish that have learned to swim in the air, “comments the”. Atjo! “” Bless you! “” Thank you … it is a bit humid today … it is wetter than yesterday … but everything is good! “They had fallen to the bottom … but for them had absolutely nothing happened. One can not deny that such a story is shocking up to date than today. I want to reiterate that I have a lot to thank my glasblasarmastare for. And even those you are extremely grateful, I can assure you, ladies and academy members, because you gave the prize to one of their pupils. And they express it in a crazy explosive manner. In my village swear it is actually on the night when we were told that the Nobel Prize was given one storytellers and medinnevanare in their village, as was heard a terrible bang! From the glass industry with large oven, which had not been lit in fifty years, exploded a great volley glowing lava and a myriad of fused colored glass fragments plunged high up in the air, which in a finale of a fireworks … and so it fell down hot embers in the lake and shot off lots of steam. While you applaud drink some water, I just. (Turns to the interpreter:) Do you have some? It is important that you talk with each other while we drink, because if you are trying to hear the LAP of that water makes when it slides down, so we in the throat and starts coughing. So talk to, “Oh what nice evening this is …!” Second Act: page nine. But it will go faster now, worry not. But above all raised this evening in a solemn and plangent thanks to you from an extraordinary theater man from my home. He is little known, not only among you and in France, Norway, Finland … but he is little known in Italy. But he is without doubt the biggest theater writers who existed in Europe during the Renaissance, even earlier than Shakespeare. I am talking about Beolco Ruzzante, my greatest teacher on the side of Moliere. Both the actor and writer, and both hanades of the top scholars of his time. The contempt was above all that they brought everyday life on the stage, ordinary people’s joy and despair, the powerful hypocrisy and arrogance and the constant injustice. And above all, they had a terrible mistake: they told me these things to make people laugh. The laughter to speak not in power. Ruzzante, Commedia dell’art-players’ true father, then created a language, a whole theatrical vocabulary, composed of different languages: dialects from the Po Valley, Latin, Spanish and even German expression, adulteration with completely fictitious ONOMATOPOEIC sound. For him, the Beolco Ruzzante, have I learned to liberate myself from the conventional literary writing and the way to express myself with words we can chew, with unusual sounds, different rhythm and breathing, until grammelotens mad word dike. Allow me to dedicate to him, Ruzzante, a part of the honorable recognition that you are giving me. For a few days ago said a young talented actress to me: “Maestro, you have to try to focus your energy, your enthusiasm towards young people. This charge you, you must give to them. For the young, you must give your professional knowledge and lessons.” I and Franca (my wife) looked at each other and said: “He is right.” But when we teach a profession gives us a passionate and imaginative power, and what will it then serve? What will this fantasy and this profession to get the results? With what objectives and against what I would channel my vitality and enthusiasm? In recent months, Franca and I went around to several universities to hold seminars and conferences before an audience of young people. It struck us most, and almost shocked us, it was to discover their ignorance of the time we live in. We told them about the trial now under way in Turkey against those who carried out the Sivas massacre. The Anatolia had thirty-seven democratic intellectuals – among the most prestigious in the country – gathered to celebrate the memory of a famous WAG of the Ottoman Middle Ages. They were burned alive, caught in a trap at a hotel, in the middle of the night. It was a bunch of fanatical integral lard, which set fire to the hotel, and they were well protected by forces within the government. On a night was thirty-seven of the most important artists, writers, directors, actors and actresses and the famous Kurdish dancing shoes suddenly smudged from Earth. In a single stroke had done nothing to the main culture people in this country, one might say. Thousands of students listened to our story and looked perplexed and feeble looking at us. They knew nothing about the massacre. It made an impression on me was that even the teachers who were present nor knew anything. And yet Turkey, the Mediterranean, almost opposite us. They insist on getting entry into the European Common Market … But nobody knew anything about the massacre. Salvini, a great democrat in our country, rightly said: “The widespread ignorance about what happens is injustice greatest support.” But that young people are so absent due to those raising them and should inform them they are really absent and ill-informed. I think the teachers and those responsible for the school. In large part, the young victims of the bombardment of banalities and cheap Obscenity as the mass media every day clots in them: cruel TVfilmer, where the ten-minute three rapes, two murders … a lynching and a clash with ten cars on a bridge which collapses. And all, cars, drivers and passengers, crashed into the sea … Only one save themselves, but he can not swim without drowning of LAUGHTER from the curious who have gathered in masses. At another university, we revealed the projects proposed by the European Parliament and which are now being realized concerning the genetic manipulation … ie to take patents on living organisms … We felt a big chill rise up from the spectators. Franca and I explained how our euro crater, stimulated by the powerful and ubiquitous multinational companies, is preparing a plan worthy of a crude science fictionfilm entitled: “Frankenstein pigs brother.” They want to approve a directive (note the deposit) gives the industry permission to take out patents on living creatures, or parts of them, created with the technique a la sorcerer’s apprentice who constitute genetic manipulation It would go to in this way: by manipulating the genome of a pig, a scientist could get it to be more like a man. With the shocking outcome that through this arrangement will make it easier to remove the liver or kidney at the … as it wishes, to transplant it to a man. But to be safer on the transplanted organs not shock away, you have to bring in some small parts of the pig in humans, which would affect or modify its structure. In this way, we finally have a man-pig (you might say we already have a lot of those) or a pig-man … and every part of this new creature, you can take the patent and copyright. And anyone who wants a part of this formanskligade pigs must pay royalties to the industry that has “invented” it. Sequelae, gruesome friendship, diseases that can be mass transfer … Such is included in the price … The Pope was indignant about this operation, over the genetic monstruositet on low-level magic tricks, and have called it a disgrace to humanity, human dignity. He has attacked it by recalling that the morale in this case is utslackt and reduced to the bestial level. It is amazing that while there is an American, an extraordinary WIZARD – you have probably read about him in the newspaper. It is he who cut the head of a baboon and then cut the head of another baboon, taking the first head and the other head and replace them. Baboons do a little bad at it. In reality, they always paralyzed, both the one and the other one. Then they die, but the experiment has succeeded very well. It is unbelievable that this figure – called White, professor White – actually resembles Frankenstein. This White is a member of the Vatican Academy of Sciences. We should warn the Pope. Yes, we are told these criminals room farces for young people, students, and they laughed as lunatics. They said about me and about Franca: “What nice they are, they can find on the amazing stories!” They had no idea – not even in the brain’s antechamber – that what we are told was true. We are increasingly convinced that Savinio, a great Italian poet, called for: “Tell me, people, your history!” Our duty as intellectuals, as people standing in the pulpit or on stage, and, above all, talking with young people – is not only to teach about how to move his arms, how to breathe in order to act, how to use the stomach, voice, VOICE , Contraccampo. It is not enough to teach a technique. You have to inform them of what is happening around it. They need to tell their story. A theater, literature, an artistic expression that does not speak on their own time does not exist. I went recently to a major congress with a lot of people and tried to tell them – and especially for young people – on a trial held in Italy, a trial which developed into seven trials. And at the end of these trials, three left politician sentenced to 21 years in prison, accused of having struck and killed one police. I have studied the documents, which I had when I was working with “anarchist who thrown out the window by an accident.” I told her about the events in this absurdity, and even farcical trial – which it has been implemented – and suddenly I understood that I spoke in a vacuum, because people were not aware of prehistory. They did not know what happened five years earlier, ten years earlier: violence, terrorism, nothing they knew. They knew neither the state massacres that took place in Italy or the trains that blew up in the air or bombs in the squares or the trial run and that was room farces. It is appalling that in order to tell the story of today, I must begin by telling the story of thirty years ago onwards. It is not enough to talk about today. And pass on: this happens everywhere, all over Europe. I have tried in Spain and it was the same story, I have tried in France, I have tried in Germany. I have not tried this, but I come here and try. And finally, allow me to dedicate a good half of the medal you give me to Franca. Franca Rame, my life and art companion, which you, members of the Academy, mentioned in the price justification as an actress and writer, which to me has written more than a text for our theater.

At this moment Franca at the theater to play in Italy, but after tomorrow, she will hit. She will be at noon. If you want to, so we can go all together and receive her at the airport. Franca is very humorous, I can assure you. For some journalists who asked her: “Excuse me, how do you feel now that wife of a Nobel Prize winners, with a monument in the house?”, She replied: “I am not worried. I do not think it is tough, because I have always trained . Every morning I do exercises: I defer down and support the hands on the floor. So, I have accustomed myself to be a base for a monument. I can do it great. ” I told you she is very humorous … and sometimes narcissist with his irony. But without her by my side on a life, I personally would certainly never have done to deserve this award. Together, we sat down and played thousands of performances at theaters, in the occupied factories, in universities in the insurgency … and even in avhelgade churches, in prisons, stalls in the sun and rain, always together. We have endured harassment and police attacks, insults from right and violence. And above all, it is she, Franca, who suffered the most appalling aggression. She, more than any, have paid with their own skins for the solidarity that we gave to the call and proposed.

The day I was awarded the Nobel Prize, I found myself in front of the theater on Via Porta Romana in Milan, where Franca was in the play “devil with tits” with Giorgio Albertazzi. Suddenly there came a bunch of photo-reporters, journalists and photographers with their television cameras. A tram that passed in this moment stannde. The conductor leaned out to visit me. All the passengers step off. They applauded, they wanted to shake hands with me to congratulate … But then they stayed up and everyone was screaming in the running: “And Franca, where is she?” and they cried with a loud voice: “Francaaa!” And she showed up after a while … plagued … moved to tears, and she came and ranging me. Suddenly, from nowhere, came an orchestra of only wind instruments and drums up. All were young people who rushed to the various parts of the city, the musicians who played together for the first time. The line up: “Porta Romana bella, Porta Romana” in the samba rhythm. I have never heard any play so false, but it was the most beautiful music that Franca and I ever listened to Believe me, this price, you have certainly given us both.

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