1989 : Camilo Jose Cela

1989 : Camilo Jose Cela

“for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man’s vulnerability”

Born

:

May 11, 1916

Place of birth

:

Padron, Galicia, Spain

Died

:

January 17, 2002

Place of death

:

Madrid, Spain

Occupation

:

Writer

Nationality

:

Spanish

Notable award(s)

:

Nobel Prize in Literature 1989

Biography:

Camilo Jose Cela was born in the Galician town of Padron (province of La Coruna), the May 11, 1916. His father (Camilo Cela Fernandez) Galician and his mother was English and Italian (Camila Emmanuel Trulock and Bertorini). He was the firstborn of the family Cela Trulock and christened with the names of Camilo Jose Manuel Juan Ramon Francisco de Jerome in the Collegiate Church of Santa Maria la Mayor of Adina (Sanxenxo). In 1925 the family settles in Madrid and Camilo studied at the college of Scolopi of Porlier. In 1931 he had to be placed in the Sanatorium Antituberculoso de Guadarrama, which would build on later to experience one of his novels. The periods of rest that his illness would be imposed employees in intensive readings of Ortega y Gasset and the collection of classical Spanish Rivadeneyra, as account. In 1934, finished his secondary studies at the Institute of San Isidro and launched the career of Medicine. It has not been enough to abound on the activities that nurtured its accumulated intellectual (academic influences, friends, travel, language or reading) with which the young Cela cementing his erudition. It is known that the listener likes to attend classes in Spanish Literature Contemporary Pedro Salinas in the new Faculty of Arts. There he became a friend of the writer and philologist Alonso Zamora Vicente. It also seeks to Miguel Hernandez, and Maria Zambrano, whose house in the Piazza del conde known in gathering the Barajas Max AUB and other writers and intellectuals. Of right-wing ideology, the Civil War caught him in Madrid with 20 years and recently convalescing from tuberculosis. He escaped with regard to the national area could be hit in the face and hospitalized in Honolulu. Visited three daisies room No. 5 at a cart carrying gifts. -Soldiers, I will decorate with a scapular of the Sacred Heart so you can preserve of all evil, look what I said: ‘Stop, bullet, the Heart of Jesus is with me ‘-. The gunner Camilo was pale, he escaped across the color of the face. – ‘No, no, thank you very much, decorations you to another, I beg you, we’ll ask Please, I wore a raincoat with a turned in the warrior and not yet A month ago I got in the back, I say with all due respect, lady, but for me that the Sacred Heart is gafe ‘-. Mazurka for two deaths. pp. 183 At the end of the war shows great indecision in his studies and come to work in an office of Textile Industries, where he began to write what they will be “The Family of Pascual Duarte.” “I started to add up action on action and blood and blood on what I was like a firecracker.” Back in the’50s, Cela began his memoirs. Then drew up a comprehensive project called “The cucana.” Of that plan will only be issued in book “The Rose” that ends in the memories of childhood. Volume II is published in 2001 covers part of childhood, adolescence and youth of the author. Cases in 1944 with Maria del Rosario Conde Picavea with whom she had two years later, a son Camilo Jose. Camilo Jose Cela Conde Rosario was divorced in late 80s to get married in 1991 with Marina Castano, a journalist with which he has shared his last years. Oriented literature and ambitious, launched in full autarky a mechanism that the poet Dionisio Falangist Ridruejo defined as a “strategy of fame, the cult of personality and willingness imperative.” He used a three-pronged strategy for this long-term political cooperation with the regime, striking literary style and public image epatant.

Works:

Works in Spanish:

Novels:

  • La familia de Pascual Duarte – Madrid: Aldecoa, 1942

  • Pabellon de reposo – Madrid: Afrodisio Aguado, 1943

  • Nuevas andanzas y desventuras de Lazarillo de Tormes – Madrid: La Nave, 1944

  • La colmena – Buenos Aires: Emece, 1951

  • Mrs. Caldwell habla con su hijo – Barcelona: Destino, 1953

  • La catira – Barcelona: Noguer, 1955

  • Tobogan de hambrientos – Barcelona: Noguer, 1962

  • Visperas, festividad y octava de San Camilo del ano 1936 en Madrid – Madrid: Alfaguara, 1969

  • Oficio de tinieblas 5. – Barcelona: Noguer, 1973

  • Mazurca para dos muertos – Barcelona: Seix Barral, 1983

  • Cristo versus Arizona – Barcelona: Seix Barral, 1988

  • La cruz de San Andres – Barcelona : Planeta, 1994

  • Madera de boj – Madrid : Espasa-Calpe, 1999

Poetry and drama:

  • Pisando la dudosa luz del dia – Barcelona: Ed. del Zodiaco, 1945

  • Cancionero de la Alcarria – San Sebastian: Norte, 1948

  • Maria Sabina – Palma de Mallorca: Papeles de Son Armadans, 1967

  • El caro de heno o El inventor de la guillotina – Palma de Mallorca: Papeles de Son Armadans, 1969 – (Homenaje al Bosco ; 1)

  • Maria Sabina ; El carro de heno o El inventor de la guillotina – 2. ed. – Madrid : Alfaguara, 1970

  • Poesia completa – Barcelona: Circulo de lectores, 1996

  • La extraccion de la piedra de la locura o El inventor del garrote – Barcelona: Seix Barral, 1999 – Homenaje al Bosco ; 2)

Collections of short stories and miscellaneous writings:

  • Esas nubes que pasan – Madrid: Afrodisio Aguado, 1945

  • Mesa revuelta – Madrid: Ediciones de los Estudiantes Espanoles, 1945

  • El bonito crimen del carabinero, y otras invenciones – Barcelona: Jose Janes, 1947

  • San Juan de la Cruz / as Matilde Verdu – Madrid: Hernando, 1948

  • El gallego y su cuadrilla – Madrid: Ricardo Aguilera, 1949

  • Santa Balbina, 37, gas en cada piso – Melilla: Mirto y Laurel, 1952

  • Timoteo el incomprendido – Madrid: Rollan, 1952

  • Baraja de invenciones – Valencia: Castalia, 1953

  • Cafe de artistas – Madrid: Tecnos, 1953

  • Ensuenos y figuraciones – Barcelona: G. P., 1954

  • Historias de Venezuela : La catira – Barcelona: Noguer, 1955

  • El molino de viento y otros novelas cortas – Barcelona: Noguer, 1956

  • Mis paginas preferidas – Madrid: Gredos, 1956

  • Cajon de sastre – Madrid: Cid, 1957

  • Nuevo retablo de Don Cristobita : invenciones, figuraciones y alucinaciones – Barcelona: Destino, 1957

  • La rueda de los ocios – Barcelona: Mateu, 1957

  • La obra literaria del pintor Solana – Madrid: Papeles de Son Armadans, 1957

  • Historias de Espana : los ciegos, los tontos – Madrid: Arion, 1957

  • Recuerdo de don Pio Baroja – Mexico City: De Andrea, 1958

  • La cucana : memorias de Camilo Jose Cela – Barcelona: Destino, 1959

  • Cuadernos del Guadarrama – Madrid: Arion, 1960

  • Los viejos amigos – 2 vol. – Barcelona: Noguer, 1960-1961

  • Cuatro figuras del 98 : Unamuno, Valle-Inclan, Baroja, Azorin, y otros retratos y ensayos espanoles – Barcelona: Aedos, 1961

  • Gavilla de fabulas sin amor – Palma de Mallorca : Papeles de Son Armadans, 1962

  • Garito de hospicianos o Guirigay de imposturas y bambollas – Barcelona : Noguer, 1963

  • El solitario y los suenos de Quesada / Camilo Jose Cela, Rafael Zabaleta – Palma de Mallorca: Papeles de Son Armadans, 1963

  • Toreo de salon : farsa con acompanamiento de clamor y murga – Barcelona: Lumen, 1963

  • Once cuentos de futbol – Madrid: Nacional, 1963

  • Las companias convenientes y otros fingimientos y cegueras – Barcelona: Destino, 1963

  • Izas, rabizas y colipoterras : drama con acompanamiento de cachondeo y dolor de corazon – Barcelona: Lumen, 1964

  • Paginas de geografia errabunda – Madrid: Alfaguara, 1965

  • A la pata de palo – 4 vol. – Madrid: Alfaguara, 1965-1967

  • Nuevas escenas matritenses – 7 vol. – Madrid: Alfaguara, 1965-1966

  • Madrid – Madrid: Alfaguara, 1966

  • Calidoscopio callejero, maritimo y campestre – Madrid: Alfaguara, 1966

  • Diccionario secreto – T. 1-2. Madrid: Alfaguara, 1968-1972

  • Al servicio de algo – Madrid: Alfaguara, 1969

  • Barcelona – Barcelona: Alfaguara, 1970

  • La Mancha en el corazon y en los ojos – Barcelona: EDISVEN, 1971

  • Obras selectas – Madrid: Alfaguara, 1971

  • La bola del mundo : escenas cotidianas – Madrid: Sala, 1972

  • A vueltas con Espana – Madrid: Semanarios y Ediciones, 1973

  • Balada del vagabundo sin suerte y otros papeles volanderos – Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1973

  • Cuentos para leer despues del bano – Barcelona: La Gaya Ciencia, 1974

  • Prosa / edited by Jacinto Luis Guerena – Madrid: Narcea, 1974

  • Rol de cornudos – Barcelona: Noguer, 1976

  • Enciclopedia del erotismo – Madrid: Ed. Sedmay, 1976

  • La insolita y gloriosa hazana del cipote de Archidona – Barcelona: Tusquets, 1977

  • Los suenos vanos, los angeles curiosos – Barcelona: Argos Vergara, 1979

  • Album de taller – Barcelona: Ambit, 1981

  • El espejo y otros cuentos – Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1981

  • Los vasos comunicantes – Barcelona: Bruguera, 1981

  • Vuelta de hoja – Barcelona: Destino, 1981

  • El juego de los tres madronos – Barcelona: Destino, 1983

  • El asno de Buridan – Madrid: El Pais, 1986

  • Dedicatorias – Madrid: Observatorio, 1986

  • Conversaciones espanolas – Barcelona: Plaza y Janes, 1987

  • Diccionario del erotismo – 2 vol. – Barcelona: Grijalbo, 1988

  • Los caprichos de Francisco de Goya y Lucientes – Madrid: Silex, 1989

  • El hombre y el mar – Barcelona: Plaza y Janes, 1990

  • Galicia – Vigo: Ir Indo, 1990

  • Discurso para unha xove dama amante dos libros – Vigo: Ir Indo, 1991

  • Cachondeos, escarceos y otros meneos – Madrid: Ediciones Temas de Hoy, 1991

  • Desde el palomar de Hita – Barcelona: Plaza y Janes, 1991

  • Paginas escogidas / edited by Dario Villanueva – Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1991

  • Torerias: El gallego y su cuadrilla, Madrid, Toreo de salon y otras paginas taurinas / edited by Andres Amoros – Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1991

  • El camaleon soltero – Madrid: Grupo Libro 88, 1992

  • El huevo del juicio – Barcelona: Seix Barral, 1993

  • Memorias, entendimientos y voluntades – Barcelona: Plaza y Janes/Cambio 16, 1993

  • El asesinato del perdedor – Barcelona: Seix Barral, 1994

  • La dama pajara y otros cuentos – Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1994

  • El color de la manana – Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1996

  • Diccionario geografico popular de Espana – Madrid: Comunidad de Madrid/Fundacion de Camilo Jose Cela, Marques de Iria Flavia/Noesis, 1998

  • Historias familiares – Barcelona: Macia & Nubiola, 1998

Travel books:

  • Las botas de siete leguas. Viaje a la Alcarria – Madrid : Revista de Occidente. 1948

  • Avila – Barcelona : Noguer, 1952

  • Del Mino al Bidasoa : notas de un vagabundaje – Barcelona: Noguer, 1952

  • Vagabundo por Castilla – Barcelona: Seix Barral, 1955

  • Judios, moros y cristianos : notas de un vagabundaje por Avila, Segovia y sus tierras – Barcelona: Destino, 1956

  • Primer viaje andaluz : notas de un vagabundaje por Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla, Segovia, Huelva y sus tierras – Barcelona: Noguer, 1959

  • Viaje al Pirineo de Lerida : notas de un paseo a pie por el Pallars, Sobira, el Valle de Aran y el Condado de Ribagorza – Madrid: Alfaguara, 1965

  • Nuevo viaje a la Alcarria – Barcelona : Plaza & Janes, 1986

Translations into English:

  • The Hive / translated by J.M. Cohen in consultation with Arturo Barea – New York : Farrar, Straus and Young, 1953 – Translation of La colmena

  • The Family of Pascual Duarte / translated and with an introd. by Anthony Kerrigan – Boston : Little, Brown, 1964 – Translation of La familia de Pascual Duarte

  • Journey to the Alcarria / translated by Frances M. Lo?pez-Morillas – Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1964 – Translation of Viaje a la Alcarria

  • Pascual Duarte and His Family / translated by Herma Briffault – New York : Las Americas Pub. Co, 1965 – Translation of La familia de Pascual Duarte

  • Mrs. Caldwell Speaks to Her Son / Mrs. Caldwell habla con su hijo, in the authorized English translation and with an introd. by J. S. Bernstein – Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University Press, 1968 – Translation of Mrs. Caldwell habla con su hijo

  • San Camilo, 1936 : the Eve, Feast, and Octave of St. Camillus of the year 1936 in Madrid / translated by J.H.R. Polt. – Durham : Duke University Press, 1991 – Translation of Visperas, festividad y octava de San Camilo del ano 1936 en Madrid

  • Mazurka for Two Dead Men / translated by Patricia Haugaard – New York : New Directions, 1992 – Translation of Mazurca para dos muertos

  • Boxwood / translated by Patricia Haugaard – New York : New Directions, 2002 – Translation of Madera de boj

Literature (a selection):

  • Zamora Vicente, Alonso,Camilo Jose Cela : acercamiento a un escritor – Madrid, 1962

  • Ilie, Paul, La novelistica de Camilo Jose Cela – Madrid, 1963

  • Kirsner, Robert, The Novels and Travels of Camilo Jose Cela – Chapel Hill : Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1966

  • Foster, David William, Forms of the Novel in the Work of Camilo Jose Cela – Columbia, Mo. : Univ. of Missouri, 1967

  • Huarte Morton, F., Ensayo de una bibliografia de “La familia de Pascual Duarte” – Madrid, 1968

  • Suarez Solis, Sara, El lexico de Camilo Jose Cela – Madrid : Alfaguara, 1969

  • Urrutia, Jorge, Cela: la familia de Pascual Duarte : los contextos y el texto – Madrid : Sociedad General Espanola de Libreria, cop. 1982

  • Hernando Cuadrado, Luis Alberto, Camilo Jose Cela y el lenguaje popular venezolano – Madrid : Castalia, 1983

  • Charlebois, Lucile C., Understanding Camilo Jose Cela – Columbia, S.C. : University of South Carolina Press, 1998

  • Perez, Janet, Camilo Jose Cela Revisited : the later novels – New York : Twayne, 2000

  • Garcia Yebra, Tomas, Desmontando a Cela – Madrid : Ediciones Libertarias, 2002

  • Umbral, Francisco, Cela: un cadaver exquisito : vida y obra – Barcelona: Planeta, 2002

  • Gibson, Ian, Cela, el hombre que quiso ganar – Madrid : Aguilar, 2003

Awards:

1989: Nobel Prize in Literature.

Presentation Speech:

Presentation Speech by Professor Knut Ahnlund, of the Swedish Academy, December 10, 1989

Your Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses, Ladies and Gentlemen,

Camilo Jose Cela has written upwards of a hundred books, a veritable library in itself, filled with the most astounding contrasts, popular, crudely humorous tales side by side with some of the darkest and most desolate works in European literature.

Once Cela was a young poet in a Madrid on the verge of civil war. More than almost any writer he was at the center of those agonizing events, both as one of those responsible for them and as a resistance fighter. It was after serving in the trenches, being wounded and lying awhile in field hospitals, after the war was over and he had come home and Spain had embarked on her many dreary years under the new regime, that he made his debut – as a prose writer. In high quarters there was a desire to see edifying books, preferably cheerful and sunny ones. Cela’s first novel was about a multiple murderer who relates his life history before his execution. La familia de Pascual Duarte, Pascual Duarte’s Family, was printed secretly in a garage in Burgos in 1942, and by the time it had come to the authorities’ notice the edition was almost sold out. Gradually the censors became resigned; next to Don Quixote it must be the most widely read of all Spanish novels. This story of a matricide can be read as an allegory, a fairy tale about Spain’s monstrous sufferings and furious internal strife.

It opened the sluice-gates. Cela’s works grew in range and splendor. If they had anything in common it was the swarms of characters appearing in them; it was hardly a matter of the hierarchy of main characters and secondary ones that is customary in novels. On the stage where the author lets dramas of life and of Spain play themselves out under grim starlight, one could argue, with only slight exaggeration, that there were only secondary characters.

La Colmena or The Beehive, with more than 300 characters, depicts Madrid life during the first sad years of the Franco era. It was Cela’s boldest challenge hitherto to the authorities’ repression of free expression. Although it was translated into many languages, the Spaniards themselves were long denied access to it.

Eighteen years later, in 1969, when Cela published his novel San Camilo 1936, the mesh of censorship had numerous gaps and tears in it, so this book was at last published where it was written. To some extent, the Madrid of The Beehive still exists in San Camilo 1936, but illumined by streaks of visionary light, and swatched in an apocalyptic glow. The action takes place in Madrid during the week immediately on the eve of the Civil War. Here we encounter the young man with the sad burning eyes, see him mingling with the city’s crowds or staring into the mirror of his own bitter reflections. To a great extent the narrative is an incantation, an exorcization, an invocation, and so it points forward to the work which must be Cela’s most obscure, Oficio de Tinieblas 5 – a poetic apocalypse, a major poem eleven hundred and ninety-four verses long, an overall vision of life’s dark absurd anti-logic, arranged in a form similar to the Mass.

In Mazurca para dos Muertos, Cela, after his forays into the border lands where language and existence meet chaos, came back to the realities of Spanish life which he had depicted in so many facets. It is an account of the lives of ordinary people in the green and damp Galicia where he lived as a child. But most of all, perhaps, it is a tale about Death, an imagistic fresco depicting the tumult, insanities, comedy and tragedy of human life, always against the background of death, which in the end gathers everything and everyone to itself. Its great, crude humor is part of a tradition that goes back to Aristophanes, Rabelais and Shakespeare, yet it resembles nothing we have ever read in that line.

In his classical travel books from the forties and fifties, redolent with a quieter humor, we meet a more gentle pliant Cela; Cela the vagabond, looking for milieux and cultures that at the time were in the process of disappearing.

As a whole, what we have before us is an extraordinary rich, weighty and substantial body of writings that possess great wildness, license and violence, but which nonetheless in no way lack sympathy or common human feeling, unless we demand that those sentiments should be expressed in the simplest possible way. Cela has renewed and revitalized the Spanish language as few others have done in our modern age. As a creator of language he is in the tradition of Cervantes, Gongora, Quevedo, Valle-Inclan and Garcia Lorca, Spanish has not really been quite the same language since those writers have put their marks in its great book.

Dear Camilo Jose Cela,

I have devoted a few brief minutes to describing a body of work so great and varied as to defy any summary. Your contribution to the rights of creative imagination spans nearly half a century, including long periods under difficult conditions, but in the end it won out. In recent years the wealth of Latin American literature has been widely discussed everywhere. Perhaps too little attention has been paid, however, to its counterpart in the country where Spanish was first spoken. Personally, and on behalf of the Swedish Academy, may I congratulate you most cordially, and may I ask you to receive from the hands of His Majesty the King this year’s Nobel Prize in Literature.

Nobel Lecture:

December 8, 1989

Eulogy to the Fable

Distinguished Academicians,

My old friend and mentor Pio Baroja, who ran out of the Nobel Prize because of the success candelita not always shines head of the fair, had a clock in whose area wore some sobering words, shattering a slogan that declared the passage of the Hours: All injured, the last kills. Well: they have already many bells sounded in my soul and in my heart, the two handles that ignores the clock back, and today, with one foot in a lot of life that I have left behind and the other in the hope, I come before you to speak words of the word and think, with good will and we will see if they also lucky, freedom and literature. I do not know where they can lift their customs border of old age but, just in case, I shield in the words of Don Francisco de Quevedo: all want to get old and all refuse to have arrived already. Because I know well that there can be no return to face the evidence, and because neither am aware that the timetable is inexorable tool, I have to tell them soon, I must say, without leaving the slightest loophole or the inspiration or improvisation, these two notions that disdain. In this trance in which today I am speaking to you from this podium so hard to achieve, I doubt whether the brightness of the word, in this case, my word – there will not be able confused about my true merit, I think it is extremely low for the high award that you have distinguished. It is not difficult to write in Spanish, that gift of the gods of the Spaniards but we do not have very vague news, and I am encouraged about the idea that one has wanted to reward a glorious language and not a humble officer of it and what server that it can be expressed: for joy and lesson for all men, that literature is an art of all and for all, although written without obeying anyone and without hearing more than the dull and anonymous rumor of our corner and our time . I write from loneliness and I speak also from loneliness. Matthew German, in his Alfarache of Guzman, and Francis Bacon, in his essay Of Solitude, they said, and more or less the same time that the man who seeks solitude has a lot of god or beast. I am encouraged the idea that I have not searched, but found solitude, and I think that since she and work and live-and-write and speak, I believe that with calm and an almost infinite resignation. And always accompanies me in my solitude the course of Picasso, also my old friend and teacher, that without a great loneliness can not be a lasting work. Because I go through life disguised as a belligerent, I can speak of loneliness without empacho and even with some grateful and painful illusion. The biggest prize that is achieved is to get to know you can talk, which can emit sounds articulated words and say-ing states of the objects, events and emotions. Historically, man has been defined by the philosophers of the throwing hand helped middle of the next and gender-specific difference, ie, referring to our animal and origin of the differences. From Aristotle to zoon politikon reasonable Cartesian soul, those signs have been essential to distinguish between raw and human. Well, much as the ethologist could call into question what I’m going to hold, it would be difficult to find sufficient authority to put into the trait of language that the ultimate source of human nature that makes us be, for better and for worse , Different from the rest of the animals. We are different from animals and, from Darwin, we know that come from them. The evolution of language is thus a paramount issue that we can not ignore. The phylogeny of the human species includes an evolutionary process in which organs that produce and identify the sounds and the brain that provides them with respect, will be formed in a slow time that includes the very birth of mankind. None of the subsequent events, from the Song of Mio Cid and Don Quixote to the theory of quanta, is comparable in significance to that marked the first time by naming the most basic things. However, pursuit and obvious reasons, I will not refer here to the evolution of language in the original and fundamental sense, but in another, it may be that more secondary and accidental, but the relative importance far greater than those we were born in a community with literary tradition rather than secular. In view of such illustrious as etnolinguistas A. S. Diamond, the history of languages, of all languages, navigating through a sequence in which the prayers began, in its most remote origins, being simple and primitive to end the long complicated both in its syntax and content semantics that are able to offer us. By extrapolating the trend historically verifiable, it also assumes that progress towards the complexity goes through a moment in which the majority of the burden falls on communicative verbs, to the current situation in which they substantive, the adjectives and adverbs are those who give dot density and the content of the sentence. If this theory is true and if we fly a little imagination, we could think that the first word was a verb in its most immediate and urgent use, that is imperative. The imperative has yet clear is, a considerable importance in communication and is a difficult time with the verb to be taken very carefully because it requires quite know in detail is not always simple rules of the game. Nial placed an imperative can lead to results exactly opposite to those desired, because in the triple distinction that John Langshaw Austin hi / .o famous (language locucionario, ilocucionario and perlocucionario) and was exposed to sufficient wisdom of the thesis as the leading language perlocudonario to provoke a certain conduct in the interlocutor. Serves no purpose to order something if those to whom the mandate is directed disguises and just doing what you want. From the zoon politikon reasonable soul to have been sufficiently defined the fields where the pace beast or man sings, not always very warm voice. Cratilo, in the Platonic dialogue which lends its name to Heracloto hiding among the folds of her tunic. On the face of his interlocutor Hermogenes spoke Democritus, the philosopher of the full and empty, and perhaps also Protagoras, the antigeometra, which in its wrongdoing came to argue that man is the measure of all things: of which are in they are, and which are not, as they are not. A Cratilo was concerned with the problem of language, so that is all what it is like what is not, and it extends into pleasant conversation with Hermogenes. Cratilo think that the names of things are obviously related things. Things are born, or are created, or are discovered or invented, and in his soul inhabits, since its origin, the proper name that identifies and distinguishes it from others. The signifier – seems to want to tell, is pristine concept born from the same egg every thing, except under reasonable conditions to move the etymologies, the dog is a dog (in each language old) from the first dog and love is love, according indications from the first love. The edge of paradoxical thinking Cratilo, contrafigura of Heraclitus, it was agazapa in the rabbet of the inseparability or unit-of-the contrary, in the harmony of the opposite (day and night) on the move permanent and reaffirmed its substance — the words too, as objects in themselves (no dog without a cat, there is no love without hate). Hermogenes, by contrast, thinks that words are no more than conventions established by men with a reasonable purpose to be understood. Things appear or are presented to the man, and man, faced with the thing newborn, the christening. The signifier of things is not the source of the forest, but the hole dug by man. The boundary of the parabolic-feel and-tell of Hermogenes, mask and Democritus bouts of Protagoras, is overheating in many points: the man, that it measures (and means) each and every one of those things, gender or the individual?; the extent of those things, is it not a concept rather than epistemological? things, are the only physical things or feelings and concepts? Hermogenes, to be reducing the apparently disgorging to the truth in the cradle, in return, accept the proposition as the only possible by making the man and of itself, does nothing more true-and-true that much of what it is true as to what is not. Remember that the man, as famous aporia Victor Henry, gives its name to things but can not snatch: you change the language, and yet can not change it at will. Plato, to talk, perhaps too cautiously, of the rightness of names, it seems like tilting your sympathy, albeit implicitly, to the position of Cratilo: things are called as they have to call (theorem professional and respectful to the brink of admission, in pure reason, as postulated) and not as men agree, as the winds that blow, to be called (a corollary swinging or, better still, fluctuating according to the direction of changing the present circumstances, not every pre – case). In this second originally romantic attitude, and in its consequences, demagogic, departed the Latin poets, with Horacio at the helm, and came all the ills that since then, and in this area, hubimos of suffering that we could not remedy. In the Ars poetic verses 70 to 72, will sing the triumph of use on the future (not always, at least healthy) of language. Renascentur fine quae IAM cecidere, cadentque quae nunc sunt in Honor vocabulary, if usus phase, quem penises arbitrium est et ius et loquendi rule.

This bomb-grata, however, in its apparent charity was very complex and subsequent effects: Finally, assume that the language makes the people and, fatally, anyone but the people, without which nothing worth the efforts, which must be saved in advance, to reduce the language to standard logic and fair and reasonable. This assertion Horacio risky in-use is the dock, law and the rule of language became, to go into labor weeds, the real shortcut on the way, and he left the man with the flag of language release tremolo the wind, obstinate in the triumph confused with servitude which their mere appearance. If Horace had his share of reason, we have not regatta here, and its ballast of unreason, which also does not have to hide in this trance, and also to Cratilo Hermogenes, refine its purposes, we must give them what is theirs. The position of Cratilo it comes to what is called natural language or ordinary or language, the product of a historic road and nearly eternamnente psychological journey, and if it suits Hermogenes what we understand as artificial or special language or jargon, the result of an agreement more or less formal, formal or otherwise, with a rationale but without psychological or historical tradition, at least at birth. The first Wittgen-Stein-the-Tractatus is a well-known example of the position of Hermogenes today. In this sense, it would be ridiculous to talk about language cratiliano or natural or human language hermogeniano or artificial or parahumano. Obviously, I mean, as was Horatio, the first of the two, that is, the language of living and writing: no strings attached or defensive techniques. Also the language we now call cratiliano alludes Max Scheler, and in the phenomenologist-general when he talks of language as words or as an ad or speech, and Karl Buhler in ordering the three functions of language: the words, the appeal and representation. It goes without saying that the language naturally hermogeniano admits his original artifact, while the language cratiliano suffers when you want to rock in cribs that are not peculiar and which often are somewhat agazapan contingencies beyond its diaphanous spirit. It is risky to admit, at all costs, that the natural language, the language cratiliano, born from the magical nuptials of the people with the chance. No, the people did not create the language: what conditions. This is not with few reservations, the people, in a sense, guess the language, the names of things, but so hybridized and adultery. If the people do not gravitate contingencies beyond those shortly ago alluded to, raising the issue would be much more immediate and linear. But the object is not proposed and which, however, the egg is hiding the truth of the problem and is a determined and is not in my power, nor that of anyone else, change it to the other. Cratiliano language, the language, structure or system of Ferdinand de Saussure, was born in the village – more among the people that it-is fixed and approved by the writers, and is governed and guided by the academy in the majority of cases. However: these three estates, the people, writers and the academy-not always comply with its peculiar duty, and often invade or interfere extraneous orbits. It would seem that the academy, writers and people do not represent your taste but prefer paper, but not competence, the role of pretending that the other – could be that even on grounds of principle is always blurred and blurred and, which is worse, ends up blurring and ensure the very object of their attention: the language, the verb that would require essentially transparent. Or algebraic and as a mere instrument, with no other value than for its own use, in the end Unamuno of Love and pedagogy. A final factor determining the state, without being exactly what the people, nor the writers nor the Academies, to all conditions and constrains, Venezuelan per thousand ways to influence dispersed (the administrative jargon, the speeches of leaders, television , Etc.). On the problem by adding more-for his bad example by their confusion-inhibition disorder and chaos to chaos. On the excesses popular, literary, academic, state, and so on. No one is pronounced, and the language is not going where you want, which in principle would be appropriate channel, but where the forces that impel those found she converge on. The people, because he repeated the verses of Horace at every turn, thinks that the whole mountain is oregano and seeks to introduce voices and modes and sweepers not guessed it-intuitive or subconsciously that might be, or at least be valid and plausible – but deliberately and consciously invented or, even worse, imported (and destiempo Contrary to the good sense). The writers, to use trailer, often vicious, its outline (Indicate each time the exceptions you want), support and authorize forms of uncomfortable to say the very essence of language or, what is even more dangerous, divorced the spirit of language. The problem of the academies is determined by the axis on which fluctuate: his conservative tendency and the fear that they face in check. The erosion of language hermogeniano on language cratiliano widen more and more as time goes on, carries the risk of dissecting the living, artificializar of what is natural. And this risk can, I repeat, both on the path of pure invention by the incorporation of the gratula or the resurrection or vivification to destiempo. Reasons very insensitive policies seem to be the engine that drives and moved all languages, all languages, to falter, with a smile on the lips, face repeated attacks of those who plague. I understand that the risk is run out of proportion to the benefits, rather utopian, that in an uncertain future may arise and, without worry purists who are very far from my mind, I would like to alert the writers, rather than out, the Academy , In tracking, and the State, alternatively, to put an end to the chaos that awaits us. There is a continuum of language that jumps over the rankings that we want to establish, without doubt, but this evidence does not authorize us to do tablarrasa of its natural boundaries. Suppose it would be admitting defeat so much as it has not yet taken place. Sharpens our wits in defense of the language – I repeat, of all languages – and always remember that confuse the procedure with the right, like taking the letter for the spirit, but does not lead to injustice, a situation that is the source – and at the same time , Sequel – has the disorder. The thought, with its appendix inseparable from the language, and freedom, would probably also join certain linguistic and conceptual forms, form a sort of umbrella under which all human endeavor can be: they are intended to explore and expand boundaries of what is human and also those who, on the other hand, but do not seek to abdicate the very condition of man. The thought and freedom founded by the same spirit of heroes and villains. But that obscures the general need for further clarification if we have to end up understanding what it means, in fact, think and be free. Think, to the extent that we identify the phenomena of consciousness, it is for men “think about being free.” Have been consumed multitude of arguments to establish the extent to which this freedom is something true, or to what extent is but another of the phenomena that taimadamente wedges human thought, but this is probably a futile dispute. A Spanish philosopher has been able to warn that both the mirage as the image of real freedom mean the same thing. If the man is not free, if it is subject to a causal chains that have their roots in the base material to study psychology, biology, sociology or history, also as a human being with the idea, perhaps illusory but absolutely universal, their own freedom. And if we believe to be free, we will organize our flooded with a very similar way as we would if ultimately results be. The architectural elements that we have been supporting, with varying fortunes, the complex fabric of our society, establish the fundamental tenet of human freedom, and we believe in him, exalted, denigrated, punish and suffer: the aura of liberty as the spirit that infuses the moral codes, the political principles and legal regulations. We know that we think and think because we are free. It is actually a fish that bites its tail, or rather a fish eager to catch his own tail, which binds the relationship between thought and freedom, because being free is both an immediate impact as an essential condition of thought. When you think, man may soon wish to disassociate itself from the laws of nature: it can accept and submit to them is clear, and on that easement based its success and prestige that the chemical has crossed the limits of the theory of flogisto. But in thinking it is the kingdom of nonsense on the same side of the rule of logic, because man is not only capable of thinking about the meaning of real and what is possible. The mind is capable of breaking into a thousand pieces and rebuild their own machinations after an aberrant image so different. May well add to the interpretations of the rational world events subject to any empirical alternatives come to the whims of those who thinks, above all, under the premise of freedom. Free thought, in this restricted meaning that opposes the empirical world, has its translation in the fable. And the ability of fables would appear, therefore, as a third partner able to add in the human condition to the thought and freedom, thanks to that pirouette that gives real character to what, until the presence of the fable, was not even simple lie. Through the thinking man can go round to discovering the truth hidden by the world, but also you can create a world far different from his and the words that come to desire, since the presence of the fable is permitting. Indeed, thought, freedom and fable are well linked through a difficult relationship, and sometimes suspicious of a dark passageway that contains not a few misunderstandings in the form of trail – and even the maze – which is not ever leave. But the threat of risk has always been the biggest source of arguments to justify the adventure. The fable and truth are no scientific ways of thinking, but contrasting, entities that are not more heterogeneous and impossible to comparison Mutual since that appeal to different codes and are subject to many different techniques. No one would therefore raise the banner of literary in the task ahead of the release of the spirits, if there is lomarlo that in return for this newest slavery of science. I think, quite the contrary, it is very unwise to go with diligence distinguishing between those that science and literature, the alimon, locked the man inside the walls of rigid control that ends up crashing the whole idea of freedom and determination, and courage in contrast to those other scientific and literary experiments intended to stick to the waiting / a. The absolute confidence in the superior sense of freedom and the dignity of man versus those suspected truths which eventually dissolved in a sea of presumption should be to testify to having gone a step along the way. But not enough. If anything we have learned is that science is not only unable to justify the claims of freedom, but also of the need crutches to enable it to support the exact opposite. The demands of the deepest values of freedom and human desire are the only ones able to substantiate the science and enabling it with such weapons, escape from a utilitarian who can not resist the trap of the number and extent. In that idea appears to recognize that literature and science, although heterogeneous, can not remain isolated in a prophylactic work of defining areas of influence. They can not do so for two reasons, which caters to both the status of language (the basic tool of thought), as the need to be limiting and distinguishing what is both laudable and praiseworthy as that on the contrary, have to suffer the denunciation of all who accept the commitment to their own being. I think that literature, like machine fable, rests on two pillars that form the framework necessary for the literary work is valuable. First, a pillar aesthetic, which requires keeping the story (or poem or drama or comedy) above some minimum quality that mask, beneath them, a world in which subliterario creation is difficult to match with the emotions of readers. Since the socialist realism to the many vagaries allegedly experimental, the lack of talent makes this aesthetics subliteratura in a monotonous crimps of words unable to achieve any valid fable. But a second column, this time of ethical spirit, looming in the consideration of the literary phenomenon, with the aesthetic quality a supplement that has a lot to do with everything said so far regarding the thought and freedom. The budgets are not ethical and aesthetic, it is clear, neither identical nor equal sense worth. The literature can be installed in a delicate balancing on a single aesthetic dimension to justify art for art’s sake, and it may be that the aesthetic quality of the emotion is, ultimately, a condition that the longer life ethical commitment. We can still appreciate the Homeric poems and songs medieval epic, while we have already forgotten, at least in the form of automatic connection, a sense of ethics that were in Greek cities and European fiefdoms. But art for art’s sake is in itself a difficult exercise, always threatened to use spurious able to distort their real meaning. I think the ethics budget is the element that makes the literary work into something truly worthy of the exalted role of the fabulacion. But should understand well the meaning of what I’m saying, because the literary fable, as an expression of those bonds that united the human capacity to think with the experience of perhaps utopian to be free, can not reflect any kind of ethical commitment. I understand that the literary work only supports the ethical commitment of the man, the author, with his own intuitions about freedom. Clear is that any man, and the most astute and balanced literary authors, is never able (perhaps be better to say: it is not always able) to overcome their own human condition; any man, I mean, is threatened with blindness, and the sense of freedom is sufficiently ambiguous as to be committed in its name the darkest errors. Neither the aesthetic quality can be learned according to outlines of the manuals. The literary fable is doomed to succeed both in their intuition in ethics as its aesthetic commitment, because only in this way may have a meaning beyond acceptable in terms of a possible fad or confusion quickly amended. While the history of man is mobile and sinuous, neither ethical nor aesthetic intuition can easily anticipate. There are authors whose sensitivity to capture collective emotions lead them to become great examples of the prevailing collective wave, and give his work a matter of conditioned reflex. Others, by contrast, lay on their shoulders the task and often not enough to put applauded freedom and human creativity a little further up the road that might not lead anywhere. It is useless to say that only in this case literature is fulfilling its role more accurately identified with the compromise marked by the human condition and, if we demand an absolute rigor in this thesis, only she could be called with all the honors real literature. But human society can not be linked not only to the geniuses, saints and heroes. In this task of finding free status, the fable has the obvious advantages it provides precisely the malleability of the internal literary tale. The fable does not need to adhere to any taxation that may limit ambitions, developments and surprises and, while this is so, as you can afford any other means of maintaining the well-thought high the banner of utopia. Maybe because it treated the most brainy of political philosophy have decided mask in the shape of those proposals utopian literary tale that once would not have been readily accepted without the clothing of fiction. A fable has no limits in Utopia, while it is anchored on the need for utopian condition. But not only the ease with the utopian proposal has the advantages of literary expression. The internal plasticity of the story, the malleability of the situations, characters and events, it is a wonderful melting pot for venture without major risks throughout a workshop or, if preferred, a laboratory in which humans tested their behavior in terms unbeatable for the experiment. The fable is not limited to indicating utopia, it can also carefully analyze and discuss what its consequences in all those alternatives, since the forecast until the brainy nonsense, that creative thinking might suggest. The role of literature as an experimental laboratory has been highlighted many times thanks to science fiction, to speculation about future seasons then we have had to live. The criticism has been repeated ad nauseam his admiration for the talents of pro-novelists who have managed to include in their fables basic coordinates of a world that has certainly followed the pattern set forth therein. What truly useful as a crucible of the fable is not the pilot’s success story in anticipation technique, but the portrait, both direct and timely as negative, capable of trasmutar the colors of a possible world, whether present or future. It is the act itself of the search for compromises human, tragic experiences and situations capable of bringing to light the need to always ambiguous opt blindly to the stresses of the world around us, or you can rodearnos, which consists of the cool literature as a laboratory experiment. In fact the value of literature with behavioral experiment has little to do with the expectations because the behavior of men just past, present and future in a specific and limited sense. There are other fundamental aspects of our way of being that are, by contrast, a staggering permanence, and so allow us to move with an emotional narrative radically alien to us in terms of time. It is the “universal man” who has the biggest prize of the literary fabulacion, in an experimental workshop that knows no borders or no time. They are the Quixote, and the Othello donjuanes who teach us that the fable is nothing more than a thousand times played chess with different pieces that destiny can at any moment to show. Might be the most absolute of determinations as a substrate of the purported that I’m pregonando freedom, and thus undoubtedly happen in the absence of the presence of that being flawed, fickle and confusing is that the author as man, while person. The magic of a Shylock would not have ever occurred without the great bard whose memory is much more dubious inconsistent, of course, that the character who gave their lives and deprived, the alimon of death. And what about the anonymous minstrels of the clergy and those who do not keep more than the result of his talent? There is certainly something that deserves to be remembered above all as much determination sociological or historical imponersenos want: that so far, and to the extent that we can imagine the future of mankind, the literary work is closely subject to the need to an author, a single source of those ethical and aesthetic intuitions to which I referred earlier, as the flow filter that will undoubtedly come from the entire society that surrounds it. It is this connection between man and society that perhaps best expresses the very paradox of the human being subject to the pride of their status as individual and tied themselves to a collective of the casing that can not safely get rid of insanity. It might be possible to draw a moral: that drew the boundaries of what literary as those who are precisely the boundaries of man’s nature and teach beyond the status, identical on the other hand, gods and demons. Our thoughts can imagine the demiurge, and the ease of human cultures to invent some religions is a sample of it, our ability to the fable can provide the basis for literary illustrate useful, something that from the Homeric poems we have not failed to do. But even so we could get to confuse our nature and end once and for all with the faint flame of liberty that beats in the intimate awareness of a slave to whom one may be compelled to obey, but not to love, and suffer until death, but not to change their deep thoughts. When the blind pride rationalist was able to renew the temptation minds illustrated Bible, the last sentence that promised “You will be like gods” did not take into account that humans had already managed to go much farther down that road. The miseries and proud that they had for centuries marked the task of becoming like gods had already taught the men a lesson best: that through the effort and imagination could get to be like men. And I can not fail to proclaim with pride that in this task, indeed pending in a considerable part well, the literary fable has proven to be a critical tool at all times and under all circumstances: a weapon able to teach men where it can be followed in the endless race toward freedom.

Book(s):

La Familia de Pascual Duarte

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