1959 : Salvatore Quasimodo

1959 : Salvatore Quasimodo

“for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times”

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Born

:

August 20, 1901

Place of birth

:

Modica, Sicily

Died

:

14 June 1968

Place of death

:

Naples, Italy

Occupation

:

Author

Nationality

:

Italy

Notable award(s)

:

Nobel Prize in Literature 1959

Biography:

Born in Modica, on August 20, 1901. His father, rail profession, he was transferred to Messina in 1908 shortly after the earthquake that devastated that city in December of that year. It was in this city where he wrote his first poems, with only sixteen, in a small literary magazine edited together some friends at the technical institute where he studied. In 1919 they move to Rome, where he enrolled in engineering at the Polytechnic; economic difficulties force you to do various jobs to pay for university studies, which did not finally come to an end. At that time is beginning to awaken in him an interest in Greek and Latin. In 1926 he moved to Reggio di Calabria, to get there a parking officer rigger.

His first poetry was published in 1930 in the journal “Solaria”, which is a collection of his poems under the title of Water and Lands (e Acque terre). Two years after publishing Oboe submerged (Oboe Sommers), a work that aroused considerable interest among literary critics. Since 1934, lives in Milan, attending to the literary circles of that city. In 1938 he can leave his job at the end of rigger, becoming editor of the magazine “Il Tempo”, which, apart from the charge of theatrical criticism, is meant as opposition to fascism. In 1940 he published Lyrics Greeks (Lirici Greece), which brings together the work in their translations of classic and that will represent an important stage in his literary production, because it shows their interest in the acercameinto between the classical and contemporary poetry. He is appointed professor at the Conservatory of Milan in 1941, and in 1942 published And suddenly the night (Ed e subito be), a work with which achieves a great success, and in which recorded an anthology of his poetic production by that date . Between 1949 and 1958 intensifies its production as a translator, publishing translations of several Latin (Catulus), Greek (the Gospel of St. John and Sophocles) and English (Shakespeare’s The Tempest). From the end of World War II introduces the themes of his poetry more social content, related to the political situation in his country. Shares in 1953 with Dylan Thomas Prize-Etna Taormina poetry. In 1959 he awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature; his speech before the Swedish Academy, which defends the active role of the poet and poetry in society, will be published in 1960 along with other essays in the book The poet and the politician. In 1960 he was named Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Messina. During the last years of his life made an active journalistic work, publishing numerous opinion articles in which acidic criticizes consumerism of modern society. He died in Naples on June 14, 1968 because of a cerebral hemorrhage, is buried at the Monumental Cemetery in Milan.

Works:

Works in Italian:

  • Acque e terre – Florence : Solaria, 1930

  • Oboe sommerso – Genoa : Circoli, 1932

  • Odore di eucalyptus, ed altri versi – Florence : Antico Fattore, 1933

  • Erato e Apollion – Milan : Scheiwiller, 1935

  • Poesie – Milan : Primi Piani, 1938

  • Ed e subito sera – Milan : Mondadori, 1942

  • Con il piede straniero sopra il cuore – Milan : Costume, 1946

  • Giorno dopo giorno – Milan : Mondadori, 1947

  • La vita non e sogno – Milan : Mondadori, 1949

  • Il falso e vero verde – Milan : Schwarz, 1954

  • La terra impareggiabile – Milan : Mondadori, 1958; enlarged, 1962

  • Petrarca e il sentimento della solitudine – Milan : All’Insegna del Pesce d’Oro/Scheiwiller, 1959

  • Tutte le poesie – Milan : Mondadori, 1960

  • Il poeta e il politico e altri saggi – Milan : Schwartz, 1960

  • Orfeo Anno Domini MCMXLVII. – Milan : Curci, 1960

  • Scritti sul teatro – Milan : Mondadori, 1961

  • Nove poesie – Verona : Riva, 1963

  • L’amore di Galatea – Palermo : Teatro Massimo, 1964

  • Anita Ekberg / a cura di Sennuccio Benelli – Milan : Lerici, 1965

  • Dare e avere – Milan : Mondadori, 1966

  • Salvatore Quasimodo : Premio Nobel per la letteratura 1959 – Milan : Fabbri, 1968

  • Un anno – Genoa : Immordino, 1968

  • Le opere / a cura di G. Pino – Turin : Unione Tipografica, 1968

  • Poesie e discorsi sulla poesia / a cura e con introduzione di Gilberto Finzi. – Milan : Mondadori, 1971

  • A colpo omicida e altri scritti / a cura di Gilberto Finzi – Milan : Mondadori, 1977

  • Bacia la soglia della tua casa – Siracusa, Sicily : Schittino, 1981

  • A Sibilla, edited by Giancarlo Vigorelli – Milan : Rizzoli, 1983

  • Il poeta a teatro – Milan : Spirali, 1984

  • Lettere d’amore : 1936–1959 / a cura di Alessandro Quasimodo – Milano : Spirali, 1985

  • Le Medaglie di Francesco Messina – Milan : Scheiwiller, 1986

  • Carteggio, 1929–1966 / a cura di Giuseppe Miligi – Milano : All’insegna del pesce d’oro, 1988

  • Notturni del re silenzioso / saggio critico di Giovanna Musolino – Messina : Sicania, 1989

Translations into English:

  • Selected Writings / translated and edited by Allen Mandelbaum – New York : Farrar, Straus & Cudahi, 1960

  • Poems / translated by G. H. McWilliam and others – Dublin : Italian Institute of Culture, 1963

  • The Poet and the Politician, and Other Essays / translated by Thomas G. Bergin and Sergio Pacifici – Carbondale : Southern Illinois University Press, 1964

  • Selected Poems / translated by Jack Bevan – Harmondsworth : Penguin, 1965

  • To Give and to Have, and Other Poems / translated by Edith Farnsworth – Chicago : Regnery, 1969

  • Debit and Credit / translated by Bevan – London : Anvil, 1972

  • Complete Poems / translated by Jack Bevan – London : Anvil, 1983 ; New York : Schocken, 1984

Awards:

1959: Nobel Prize in Literature.

Presentation Speech:

Presentation Speech by Anders Osterling, Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy.

Salvatore Quasimodo, the Italian poet who has been awarded this year’s Nobel Prize in Literature, is a Sicilian by birth. He was born near Syracuse, to be more exact, in the little town of Modica some distance from the coast. It is not difficult to imagine that a region so rich in memories of the past must have been of the utmost importance for his future calling. The relics of the ancient Greek temples on the island, the theatres near the Ionian Sea, Arethusa’s fountain, so famed in legend, the gigantic ruins at Girgenti and Slinunte – what a playground for a child’s imagination! Here in days gone by the heroes of Greek poetry were guests at the court of King Hieron, here the voices of Pindar and Aeschylus linger like an echo through the ages.

Even if, as far as material matters are concerned, Quasimodo was reared in comparative poverty, the milieu in which he spent his youth was nevertheless something to be grateful for. Admittedly, many restless years of travel were to pass before he became conscious of his talent and began to find his way in the classical heritage that was his. In due course, however, his studies were to show their influence in his great contribution as a translator of the literature of classical antiquity which now forms the homogeneous background of his own work as one of the foremost poets in the Italian language. There can hardly be any doubt that his strict classical education acted as a stimulus, not to servile imitation, but to energetic self-discipline in the use of language and the achievement of artistic style. Although regarded as one of the principal innovators in modern poetry, Quasimodo is, nevertheless, bound to the classical tradition and occupies this place with all the natural confidence of a true heir.

Quasimodo made his debut as early as 1930 but it was not until the forties and fifties that he established his position as one of Italy’s most outstanding poets, and by this time his reputation had become international. He belongs to the same generation as Silone, Moravia, and Vittorini, that is, the generation of left-wing authors who were able to prove their worth only after the fall of Fascism. Quasimodo is like these writers in that for him, too, the fate of present-day Italy is a reality in which he is deeply involved. His literary production is not very large. In actual fact it consists of five books of poetry, which reveal his development to complete individuality and originality. I quote the characteristic titles of the volumes: Ed e subito sera (And Suddenly It’s Evening), published in 1942, Giorno dopo giorno (Day after Day), in 1946, La vita non e sogno (Life Is Not a Dream), in 1949, Il falso e vero verde (The False and the True Green), in I956, and finally, La terra impareggiabile (The Incomparable Earth), in 1958. Together they form one homogeneous work in which not a single line is unimportant.

Quasimodo has sung of the Sicily of his childhood and his youth with a love that, since he went to live in the north of Italy, has gained an ever-increasing depth and perspective – the windswept island scenery with its Greek temple columns, its desolate grandeur, its poverty-stricken villages, its dusty roads winding through olive groves, its strident music of pounding surf and shepherds’ horns. Nonetheless, he cannot be called a provincial poet. The area from which he draws his themes gradually increases, while at the same time his human pathos breaks through the strict poetic form which first fettered him. Above all, the bitter experiences of the war provided the impulse for this change and made him an interpreter of the moral life of his fellow countrymen in their daily experience of nameless tragedies and constant confrontation with death. In this later period he has created a number of poems that are so monumental that one would like to believe that they will be accepted as a lasting contribution to the world’s great poetry. Naturally, Quasimodo is far from being the only Italian poet to be deeply affected in this way by the martyrdom of his country and its people, but the Sicilian poet’s dark and passionate earnestness rings with a special and individual note when he ends one of his lyrics with the cry:

However much everything else is distorted

The dead can never be sold.

Italy is my country, o stranger,

It is of its people I sing, and of the sound

Of secret lamentation that comes from its sea,

I sing of its mothers’ chaste grief, of all its life.

Quasimodo is of the bold opinion that poetry does not exist for its own sake, but has an irrefutable mission in the world, through its creative power, to recreate man himself. To him, the road to freedom is the same as the conquest of isolation, and his own progress points in the same direction. In this way his work has become a living voice and his poetry an artistic expression of the consciousness of the Italian people, as far as this is possible for poetry with an otherwise so concise and individual structure. In his poems, Biblical turns of phrase are to be found side by side with allusions to classical mythology, that mythology which is an ever-present source of inspiration for a Sicilian. Christian compassion is the basic quality of his poetry, which, in moments of greatest inspiration, attains universality.

Dear Sir – The following statement pronounced by the Swedish Academy is the reason for which you have been awarded the Nobel Prize: “for his lyric poetry, which, with classical fire, expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times”.

Your poetry has come to us as an authentic and vivid message of that Italy which has had faithful friends and admirers in our nation for centuries. With our most cordial congratulations I ask you to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature from His Majesty, the King.

Nobel Lecture:

December 11, 1959

Il poeta e il politico

“Long is the night that no day is ever” are words of Shakespeare in Macbeth and help us to determine a condition of the poet, who in the first instance the player appears to be an image of solitude with his face and gestures of companion childhood, perhaps the most sensitive, expert readings secret, but rather ‘restless in court on an alleged representation or attempted violence in the world with words that fall accents determined, and with strict measures external to science. Repeat a man for the poet is the negation of the earth, the impossibility of being, although its increased demand is to talk to many people, to join them with some harmonies on the truth of things or mind. The innocence is a quality acute, sometimes, and allows representations of extreme sensitivity, and the companion that forces, dialectic, the first numbers in poetic form logic, will remain a reference point exactly, a fire that allows the construction of the half a parable. The other players are the ancient poets, who watch from a distance incorruptible new cards, their forms resist, and it is difficult to put nearby. The writer of short stories, novels, stops on men, imitating them, consumes characters, the poet, in his dark ball, with infinite objects, is only, and not sase is indifference, his or hope. Later on, that face will only multiply, those figures will gestures, consents or contrasts. This happens to the publication of the first poems when the chassis set alarms, why, and yet it must be said, the birth of a poet from the rope that the literary circle of caste try to reach the center, is always a danger to the established culture. Strano public has now, whom begins to have silent Armed reports: critics, professors of the province, people of letters. Most of these people, the youth of the poet reasonable, destroying the metaphysical, operate on images, the judges are abstract: correct on poetic differential poems “wrong”. The poem is also the person of the poet, and although a private separation is not possible, not stimulate the sake of my autobiography talking about the homeland, which, as everyone knows, is dense in every century of Giovanni Della Casa, the writers, namely, Cleaning metric and adult genius. These traditions have baptized clairvoyance and imagination, and fanatics are also allegories of the credible ruin the world. Do not tolerate chronicles, but figures ideals, attitudes: the history of poetry is for them a gallery of ghosts. The controversy has a base, if you consider that my poetic research is conducted in a period of dictatorship and marks the origins of the cultural movement dell’ermetismo. In my first book, published in 1930, second, third, fourth (a translation from Greek Lirici output in 1940) I could not see through the thick political and academic aversion to forms of cruel poetry and seconded by compositions classic, which an audience of readers stratified, humble or ambitious. I Lirici Greeks, and was the principle of a truer reading of the classics throughout Europe, entered into new literary generation of that time. These young, I knew, wrote love letters citing verses of my lyrics, while others appeared on the walls of prisons, marked by the convicted politicians. In that time I wrote poems, wrote verses to go, without forgiveness, in the most acre solitude! Categories of spirit, truth? The old European poetry, free, unaware of our presence: the province Latin subservient to Cesari, already matured blood, no lessons of humanism. My readers were writers, but there was to be expected that other people read my poems. Students, employees, workers? I tried likelihood abstract? One of the most rough presumptions? It was instead an example of how you force loneliness. Loneliness, “the long night” shakespeariana, borne by mal politician – who wanted the Tirteo during seasons African or Russian – will determine how poetical clear: acceptance in those forms that seemed to continue decadentism European, and were the first architectures neo-humanism. The war, I have always said, forcing a new man in a home victorious or defeated. The poetic and philosophies break “when falling trees and walls” would be too easy to resume at the point interrupted by the first collision atomic waste formal and bound man in a time of decorum and virtue phonetics. After the boil of death also moral principles are called into question and evidence of religion also means writers hung the outcome of their private aesthetic minute are detached from the restless presence of poetry. The poet, by night, that is, from loneliness, finds his days and launches a deadly diary for inert, the dark landscape sells for dialogue. The political and alessandrini armor with symbols of purity and mystical pretend to ignore the poet. It is a story that repeats as the song of the rooster, even as the third song of the rooster. The poet is an irregular and does not penetrate into the skin of false civilization full of literary towers as the time of Commons, seems to destroy its forms themselves but the continuing, the opera switch to EPI in to talk in the world and what snowstorm in the world through man and feeling. The poet then begins to become a hazard. The political-held distrust of freedom and culture through critical conformist try to make building the concept of poetry Considering the fact creative outside of time and ineffective, as if the poet rather than a man, was a ‘ abstraction. The poet is the sum of the different “experiences” of his time, has a language that is no longer that of avant-garde, but practical in the sense of the classics. Eliot says here that one of Dante “is the common language at the perfect stage … but the simple style, which Dante is the greatest teacher, is a difficult style.” We will insist on this language, which is not that of parnassiani and inventors crisis in the body language of every country, where contamination with dialects does not create doubts that other literary and hieroglyphics, why will never be the philologists to renew the language written is a right that belongs to the poets. The language of poetry is not difficult because of philology or spiritual darkness, but by virtue of content. The poets may be translated: it is impossible to translate the letters, because they rely on their intellectual craft techniques of other poets, because defending the symbolism or revocation for lack of content, thought to be added to other human thought, for the truth of which theoretically have been fed by calling or major poets Goethe dell’Ottocento French. Stay in tradition, not internationalism, is what the poet. I think writers to Europe or the world in terms of poetics that is inward-looking, as if the poem was an “object” identical throughout the world. Then, this acceptance of poetry, formalism prefer some content and alienates others with violence, but the problem from both sides of the fence, it is always about content. The words of the poet, so, begins to beat strongly on the heart of every race, while the writer considers himself purest in the world and forced the poet in the province, with his mouth broken trapezes syllable. The political uses of letters who does not have a contemporary spiritual position, but passed at least two generations, and the culture is a wise game breakdowns and turbulent, where the religious factor may push yet to imprison the mind of ‘ man. Religious poetry, poetry calendar, lyric poetry or dramatic: categories of expression, valid if valid is the formal solicitation of content. Mistake to believe that a conquest of the soul, a special situation and individual sentiment (religious) can become by extension “society”. The ascetic discipline, surrender towards the man who is not a formula of death. The spirit of “acting” always falls in leghold trap wolf: his speech is often spoken by a mystical, from freedom of the slave who is on the ground. It frightens her interlocutor (his shadow, subject to be regulated) with images of physical decay, with a pleased dell’orrido. The poet does not fear death, not because he enters the fantasy heroes, but because death is a visitor continues his thoughts and then the image of a peaceful dialogue. Before this posting he finds figuration, which closes within himself the dream, disease, the redemption from the misery of poverty, which may not be for him a sign of acceptance of life. To realize of exercising political, and this time we also understand the power of religion, just think the silence of a millennium in the field of poetry and the arts after the end of the classical world, or the great painting of the fifteenth century, period when the Church was the employer and ordered its contents. Formalistic criticism tries to hit on the concept of reasons for the forms and has reservations on the consistency of content for influence in the absolute sense on its autonomy. In fact, poetry does not accept the attempts “missionaries” of political intervention nor the criticism that originates from any philosophy. The poet suffers no moral or aesthetic diversions, hence, in a certain time, a double solitude in the world and literary militias. There is, meanwhile, contemporary aesthetics? And what philosophy you can get active suggestions? An existential poetry or Marxist is not yet time stop on the dial literary, dialogue or the chorus of new generations require a crisis, which is also a crisis, and this confusion is the political will to create areas of stability illusion of a poem shattered. The contrast between the politician and poet in general was evident in the culture of every time and today the two blocks that govern the world are reasons form of freedom contradictory when it is clear that for which there is no political freedom and in only one direction. Difficult to break this barrier that has stained with blood the history of civilization. There are always two ways of considering the culture of freedom: freedom in countries where a profound social upheaval (the French Revolution, for example, or the Revolution of October) and that of others, that before undergoing a change in the modus conceive of the world resist long in their strongholds. There may be a coordination between the politician and poet? Perhaps where there are companies in training, but never in terms of absolute freedom. In the political world has different aspects, but it will never be possible to reach an agreement with the poet, because of an internal deals and other things of the human. The order interior can be, in a given era, with the desire of the building of a new company. The religious power, so often identified with the political, as I said, has always been the protagonist of this tough fight even when it seemed the side. The reasons for which the poet becomes a danger to the political (the poet as an indicator of morale of its people) are always those mentioned in John Villani in his Cronica about Dante: that his contemporaries for “good will delight in the comedy by Garry and said a way of poet, perhaps in part that no defendant: but perhaps his exile made him do. ” Dante does not write stories like Villani and next to the sweet poetry of the hermetic school of sweet stil novo later added, without betraying its integrity, violence of human and political invective, not dictated by hatred but by justice and internal religious universal sense. Faced with these numbers burning forever, the aesthetes were wary of putting them in limbo non-poetry. More poetically meaningful ways always appeared as “Trivia ride between the nymphs eternal” not the vituperio of Pisa, the liquid fire on Florence, which burned for centuries the city kind of Beatrice. The poetry of Dante has created suspicion in the name of his greatness, and the false worship his memory even today is only rhetoric, so few listeners of his human comedy. Every nation has the poets who are on the same line of the civilization of Dante. Schiller remember, for the Germans, Shakespeare, for the British, Moliere and Corneille, for France, Cervantes, for Spain, Dostoevsky, for Russia, and modern Let us leave for the time being in their serenity army in various places of our land. Attempts to distinguish closer or farther away the politician and poet, these two “types” of companies of all time, are earned at least establish a historic condition. If I add to the two nouns attribute the “man”, increase the intensity of specific poet and ridurrei that kind of a politician, but I intend to political common denominator of a range of political issues, that is linked by their ideologies more or less equivalent.

Nobody ignores the role of the poet in the structure of the existing company or in development. The importance of Baudelaire, a Mallarme, a Rimbaud, as builders of a “way” of life in the French national team, is now more obvious to contemporaries who do not, when you could think that their poetry was not that one sinuous literary vanguard, refraction of a language forced to bow to provisional lyrical syntax. This policy recognizes the active force of the poet in society? Think of it, and suffice to prove the various forms of circumvention or enslavement of men of culture, here are forced to repeat myself, in companies of all time. The creative intelligence has always been considered a fatal infection. Hence the various reasons for the patronage of the medieval courts – the premiums cavaliereschi meek or heroic, the interminable fiorettature of madrigals – patronage that has swept up at the turn of this century, when, under a power of intelligence reflected the bourgeoisie constructing its state of freedom. Some might observe, back in time, that Piatone as architect of an ideal state, excluded from this poets, as a disorder (or order, you should say, considering the possibility of disrupted an orderly society based anti) but the ostracism of the philosopher was not that another form of avoidance. Today, the poet is free? It is free, according to the company that express, or continuous lighting pseudo-existential, the decorator of peaceful human feelings, or those who do not fall deeply in the dialectic of his time to political fear or inertia. It was free, in the fifteenth century, for example, Angelo Poliziano, in which one of the rooms for the Joust of Giuliano de ‘Medici with caution ago to go to Sunday Mass a nymph in the midst of confused dame secular, but not Leonardo da Vinci, another writer genius. Here freedom assume its true meaning: the consensus, that is, by the political power, consensus that allows the poet to enter without weapons in society. Were not free or even Ariosto rate, the abbot Parini, Alfieri, Foscolo: the rhetoric of sacrificed then puts them in time between the entry continued, which seems to cry out in the desert and instead corrode the non-truth. But, in turn, is free the politician? No. In fact, the caste that the siege that decide the fate of a society and also acting on the dictator. Around these two protagonists of the story is not free and opponents (the poet understand all the writers determinants of a given age) travel and reckless passions and there is quiet during a war or a revolution: the first bearer of order and the other of confusion. The last war was a clash of systems, policies, laws of civil, country by country: violence also backfire for the minimum freedom. Reappears a sense of life in their internal resistance enemy all’invasore and family. Strength of peasant culture of humanism and that “lifted his head in the harsh,” said Virgil, against the powerful. From this armed movement breaks away, in any country, not a current cultural provisional, as the conservatives think of eternal mortgages on the ‘property’ civilization. I insist in saying no, and because the core of contemporary culture (including the philosophy of existence) is not geared towards disasters of the soul and spirit, but to an attempt to bring together the broken joints of man. Will be neither fear nor the absence or indifference or impotence to give the poet the word to communicate to others a lot not metaphysical. The poet may say that man begins today, the politician can say or says that man was and may always be taken to lasso its moral cowardice, not cowardice but congenital insinuata from a slow landslide centuries. It is a truth that lies in the attitudes of unattainable political wisdom and suggests an initial conclusion, namely that the poet can speak only in the intervals of barbarism. The Resistance is a moral security, is not a poetic, nor the poet, its essence, governs words to punish somebody. His trial is of a creative, not formula in warming invent “Vaticinia.” The Europeans know the extent of this resistance, is really the golden section of modern consciousness. Although screams, the enemy of the Resistance is now a shadow with a weak law: his voice is more impersonal of its intentions. The sensitivity of the people not s’inganna on condition of the poet, nor on that of his opponent. When the antithesis is increased, is the poem that replaces the subject of political thought, that poetry is an idea to shut down or be exploited. The Resistance is the perfect image of the conflict between being and the past. The language of blood is not only drama in the physical sense, but conclusive expression of a continuing process to “technical” morality of man. Europe was born out of resistance and the adulation of indeterminate figure of an order that the war would be found from the overturned roots. Death has a sleeping self, and is an inhumane mediation for using them with the logic or the ability of intelligence policy. The loyalty of poetry is shaping up into a presence that is not the intention of injustice and death. The political man who wants knows how to die with courage, the poet wants the man living with courage. While the poet is aware of political power, they become aware of the poet only when his voice reaches profoundly different social strata, when the opera or EPO are, in addition to the forms, even the contents. From this moment begins a subterranean struggle between the poet and politician. In the history of the names of exiled poets are nuts out as mortals, while the politician, verbally, and the culture, but in fact try to reduce their power: its purpose is nothing in any century than to remove three or four basic freedoms man, so it continues, in his eternal circle, to resume what he was sacked. In our age of political defense against the culture and thus the poet is exercised discovery or obscurely on a variety of ways, the easiest is the degradation of the concept of culture. The mechanical and scientific means, radio and television, it helps to break the unity of the arts, to promote poetry that does not disturb even the shadows. Of these poetic, the most preferred are those that bind to calls of Arcadie to despise our time creatively. In this sense should be understood the meaning of Aeschylus toward “I say that kill the living dead” as epigraph put in my latest book, The earth here. In this book the comparison is the earth, and if talk of intelligence constitutes sin, we can also say that the religious power – the adjective secular, which qualifies the intelligence wants it not determine quality but the value intrinsic – goes beyond its borders by exercising its power on the humble and not onto the fire of conscience. The degradation of the concept of culture made the masses, who believe so look for the paradise of knowledge, is not a modern political factor, but new and faster is the technique used for multiple scattering of the interests of meditation. Optimism has become tangible, is just a game of memory, the myths and fables (the anxiety of supernatural events, say) fall in the “yellow”, taking visual metamorphosis in the cinema or in the epic story of the pioneers or the crime . The alternative between the poet and the politician is excluded. The irony “of worldly circles, which sometimes is a face of indifference built, reduces the culture in the dark of its history, saying that the framework of the dispute is drama, that man and his pain was and will be in their usual fence, so evident as in today and tomorrow. Of course. But the poet knows that there is a drama, exasperation of the drama, knows that flatter culture are its incendiary fanatics: the collage composed of inscribe on any regime corrupts the periphery to the center and literary groups, which stimulate eternity with slim calligraphies of the soul, with their impossible to paint life of the mind. In particular moments in history, culture joins secretly against the politician is a temporary and serves as a battering ram to break down the door of the dictatorship. In every dictatorship you establish this force, when it coincides with the research of basic freedoms. This unit will disappear when, defeated the dictator, rises to the chain of factions. The poet is only the wall of hatred rises around him with stones thrown by literary venture companies. From this wall, the poet sees the world, and go to the streets as the aedi or in the world “mundane” as the writers, right from the ivory tower, so dear to the service of the romantic, comes in the midst of the people Not just the wishes of his feelings, but also in his thoughts jealous politicians. It is not rhetoric, this: in every nation to the siege quiet poet is consistent in human chronicle. But the writers belonging to political do not represent the whole nation, we need only say “serve”, a delay of a few minutes the voice of the poet in the world. Over time, according to Leonardo, “is all wrong dirizza.”

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