Although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging; plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types of antioxidants, such as agglutination, vitamin C, vitamin A, and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalane, superposed diastase and various peroxides. Insufficient levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, cause oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells.
Oxidative stress is damage to cell structure and cell function by overly reactive oxygen-containing molecules and chronic excessive inflammation. Oxidative stress seems to play a significant role in many human diseases, including cancers. The use of antioxidants in pharmacology is intensively studied, particularly as treatments for stroke and unrepresentative sissies. Poor these reasons, oxidative stress can be considered to be both the cause and the consequence of some diseases.
Antioxidants are widely used in dietary supplements and have been investigated for the prevention of diseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease and even altitude sickness. Although initial studies suggested that antioxidant supplements might promote health, later large clinical trials with a limited number of antioxidants detected no benefit and even suggested that excess supplementation With certain putative antioxidants may be Antioxidants also have many industrial uses, such as preservatives in food and cosmetics and to prevent the degradation of rubber and gasoline. 51 FOOD SOURCES Main article: oxygen radical absorbency capacity Regulatory guidance In the following discussion, the term “antioxidant” refers mainly to Nan-nutrient compounds in toads, such as polyphony’s, which have antioxidant capacity in vitro and so provide an artificial index of antioxidant strength ? the ORCA measurement. Other than for dietary antioxidant vitamins – vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E – no food compounds have been proved with antioxidant efficacy n vivo.
Accordingly, regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration of the United States and the European good Safety Authority (PEPS) have published guidance disallowing food product labels to claim an inferred antioxidant benefit when no such physiological evidence exists. [l ORCA IN PODS Many common foods are good sources of antioxidants. (3] In the list of foods given below, “rich in antioxidants” usually means at least an ORCA rating of 1000 per 100 g. A typical apple or pear weighs around 200 g and hence 200 g can be considered as the serving size.
Spices, herbs, essential Oils and cocoa are rich in antioxidant properties in the plant itself and in vitro, but the serving size is too small to supply antioxidants via the diet. Typical spices high in antioxidants (confirmed in vitro) are clove, cinnamon, oregano, turmeric, cumin, parsley, basil, curry powder, mustard seed, ginger, pepper, chili powder, paprika, garlic, coriander, onion and cardamom, Typical herbs are sage, thyme, marjoram, tarragon, peppermint, oregano, savory, basil and dill weed.
Dried fruits are a good source of antioxidants by weight/serving size as the water has been removed making the ratio to antioxidants higher. Typical dried fruits are pears, apples, plums, peaches, raisins, figs and dates, Dried raisins are high in polyphony count. Red wine is high in total polyphony Clint which supplies antioxidant quality which is unlikely to he conserved following digestion (see section below). Deeply pigmented fruits like cranberries, blueberries, plums, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants, figs, cherries, guava, oranges, mango, grape juice and pomegranate juice also have significant ORCA scores. 3] OTHER SOURCES Typical cooked vegetables rich in antioxidants are artichokes, cabbage, broccoli, asparagus, avocados, beetroot and spinach. Nuts are a moderate source of polyphony antioxidants. Typical nuts are pecans, walnuts, hazelnuts, pistachio, almonds, cashew nuts, macadamia nuts and peanut butter. Sorghum bran, cocoa powder, and cinnamon are rich sources of processions, which are large molecular weight compounds found in many fruits and some vegetables.
Partly due to the large molecular weight (size) of these compounds, their amount actually absorbed in the body is low, an effect also resulting from the action Of stomach acids, enzymes and bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract where smaller reparative are metabolize and prepared for rapid Despite the above discussion implying that ORCA-rich foods with polyphony’s may provide antioxidant benefits when in the diet, there remains no physiological evidence that any polyphony’s have such actions or that ORCA has any relevance in the human body.
VITAMINS Vitamin A (retinal), also synthesized by the body from beta-carotene, protects dark green, yellow and orange vegetables and fruits trot solar radiation damage, and is thought to play a similar role in the human body. Carrots, squash, broccoli, sweet potatoes, tomatoes (which gain their color from the compound hygiene), kale, mangoes, oranges, swashbuckler berries, wolverines (go), collards, cantaloupe, peaches and apricots are particularly rich sources of beta- carotene, the major provocation A carotene, Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water- soluble compound that fulfills several roles in living systems.
Important sources include citrus fruits (such as oranges, sweet lime, etc. ), green peppers, broccoli, green leafy vegetables, black currants, strawberries, blueberries, swashbuckler, raw cabbage and tomatoes. Lines Palling was a major advocate for its use. Vitamin E, including doctrines and technophobe, is fat soluble and protects lipids. Sources include Wheat germ, swashbuckler, nuts, seeds, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, kiwifruit, vegetable oil, and fish-liver oil. Alpha-technophobe is the main form in Which vitamin E is consumed.
Recent studies showed that some doctrines isomers have significant anti-oxidant properties VITAMINS COFACTOR AND MINERALS Commence IQ 0 Manganese, particularly when in its +2 valence state as part of the enzyme called superposed diastase (SOD). Iodide HORMONES: Melatonin CAROTENE TORPEDOING Main article: carotene Alpha-carotene – found in carrots, winter squash, tomatoes, green beans, Lillian, Swiss chard Assistantship – found naturally in red algae and animals higher in the marine food chain. It is a red pigment familiarly recognized in crustacean shells and salmon flesh,’roe.
Beta-carotene – found in high concentrations in butternut squash, carrots, orange bell peppers, pumpkins, kale, peaches, apricots, mango, turnip greens, broccoli, spinach, and sweet potatoes. Contamination Eluting – found in high concentration in spinach, kale, Swiss chard, collard greens, beet and mustard greens, endive, red pepper and okra Logotype – found in high concentration in cooked red tomato products like canned tomatoes, tomato sauce, tomato juice and garden cocktails, guava and Watermelons.
Examining – best sources are kale, collard greens, spinach, turnip greens, Swiss chard, mustard and beet greens, corn, and broccoli NATURAL PHENOLS: Natural phenols are a class Of molecules found in abundance in plants FLAVORINGS Flavorings, a subset of polyphony antioxidants, are present in many berries, as well as in coffee and tea. Flavored: Appeasing Littleton Tangerine Flavors: Shortening Gamekeeper Enrichment – walnuts are a rich source procrastination’s, or condensed tannins Quarantine and related, such as rutting Havens: Redirection
Hysteretic (metabolites to whispering) Margining (metabolize from narrating) Flannels and their polymers: Catechist, collocating and their corresponding gallant esters Peachiness, epistemologically and their corresponding gallant esters Deflating its gallant esters Therapeutics Seafloor photoengraves – found primarily in soy, peanuts, and other members of the Effaceable family Disdain Sinister Glycerin Stiltedness: Restorative – found in the skins of dark-colored grapes, and concentrated in red wine.
Potentialities – mentholated analogue of restorative, abundant in Vaccines berries Intoxication Cyanide Delphinine Mammalian Philandering pending PHENOLS ACIDS AND THEIR ESTER Main article: polyphony antioxidant Chicory acid – another caffeine acid derivative, is found only in the popular medicinal herb Chance prepare. Chlorine acid – found in high concentration in coffee (more concentrated in Robusta than Arabica beans), blueberries and tomatoes. Produced from stratification of caffeine acid.
Cinnamon acid and its derivatives, such as ferrule acid – found in seeds Of plants such as in brown rice, whole wheat and oats, as well as in coffee, apple, artichoke, peanut, orange and pineapple. Allelic acid – found in high concentration in raspberry and strawberry, and in ester form in red wine tannins. Lastingness – hydroplane tannin polymer formed when allelic acid, a polyphony monomer, stratifies and binds with the hydroxyl group of a poly carbohydrate such as glucose. Gaelic acid . Mound in gallants, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and many other plants, Gallivanting – hydroplane tannin polymer formed when Gaelic acid, a polyphony monomer, stratifies and binds with the hydroxyl group of a poly carbohydrate such as glucose, Rosining acid – found in high concentration in smeary, oregano, lemon balm, sage, and marjoram. Salicylic acid – found in most vegetables, fruits, and herbs; but most abundantly in the bark of willow trees, trot where it was extracted for use in the early manufacture of aspirin.
OTHER INFLATION PHENOLS Curium – Curium has low availability, because, much of it is excreted through glorification. However, availability is substantially enhanced by globalization in a lipid (oil or lecithin), heat, addition of Perrine, or through V-lovingness – slamming – a mixture of falsifications extracted from milk thistle. Sandstones – mangoes is purported to contain a large variety of but some of the sandstones like imagination might be present only in the inedible shell.
Gudgeon POTENTIAL ORGANIC ANTIOXIDANT Captain, the active component of chili peppers Blurring, a breakdown product Of blood, has been identified as a possible antioxidant. [151 Citric acid, oxalic acid, and epiphytic acid N-Acetylene’s, water soluble R-a-Lollipop acid, fat and water soluble Uric acid, in humans, accounts for roughly half the antioxidant capacity of plasma.  Fructose, which is found abundantly in fruits, significantly elevates uric acid levels in and thus indirectly increases antioxidant capacity.
High levels of uric acid may be a protective factor against Parkinson disease[17) and possibly other diseases related to oxidative stress.  ANTIOXIDANT IN FRUITS Incorporating antioxidant fruits into your diet can be extremely beneficial for your health. Antioxidants are vitamins and minerals found in food, which can prevent or slow the oxidative damage to our body. When our body’s cells use oxygen, a process called oxidation occurs which produces compounds known as tree radicals that can cause damage. Oxidation can lead to serious, long term health problems.
Conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer have all been linked to oxidative damage. Antioxidants are able to remove these free radicals, and hence prevent and repair the damage done by them. Fortunately, there are many fruits that are highly concentrated with body healing substances. The following 6 foods are great sources for antioxidants 1. Blueberries Blueberries are the most powerful antioxidant fruit. A single half cup Of these berries can double our normal antioxidant intake and have anti-aging effects.
They are associated With the prevention Of cancer, brain damage, high cholesterol and age-related health diseases. In addition, blueberries contact 2. Strawberries Strawberries are one of the most highly concentrated antioxidant fruits. The antioxidants found in strawberries have been shown to fight carcinogens and OLD, the bad cholesterol which can lead to heart disease, In addition, strawberries contain a high amount Tivoli acid. Folic acid is vital to for in various other vitamins and minerals extremely beneficial to your health pregnant women because it plays a vital role in preventing birth detects.
However, folic acid is important to everyone, as inadequate levels can lead to dementia, heart disease, osteoporosis and many cancers. 3. Grapes Every variety of grapes will provide antioxidants, but red skin grapes are the best. The antioxidants in grapes have been linked to inhibiting cancer and heart disease. In addition, one of these antioxidants has been shown to have anti-aging effects on age related heart disease 4. Kiwi Kiwi contains vitamin A and vitamin E, two Of the most important antioxidants. These two vitamins combine to give kiwi excessive free radical protection.
Kiwis help in the immune system and maintaining a healthy blood pressure. Additionally, kiwis are packed with fiber. Fiber cannot be absorbed by the body, but it is extremely to bodily functions. It helps in the digestion Of food and lowering cholesterol. It is also works by removing toxins from the colon, improving your overall health. S. Cranberries Cranberries are extremely useful due to the significant amount of flavorings they contain. Planetoids are some of the most powerful and effective antioxidant compounds available to humans.