The basic problem that Madison is addressing here is to insure the protection of
the minority who is equally important as the majority.Because of the majority, factions,
which are parties in the government that push their ideas and political opinions forward,
are formed.Because of the large size and fortitude of the majority factions,it is almost
impossible to ensure the protection of the weak minority factions.A solution to the
control of the majority faction is to have some form of government.The two most
common forms of government are a democracy and a republic.A democracy won't
work in the control ofmajority faction for two reason.1)A democracy uses majority
rules.That's contradictory to what Madison says!2)A democracy is direct and direct
democracies cannot protect individual rights and property rights.Madison believed a
republic suited better for the job of controlling majority faction.
There are two important aspects of why a republic is better.1)A republic has
representatives." Representative government is needed in large countries,not to protect
the people from the tyranny of the few,but to guard against the rule of the mob."2)
A republic can meet the standards of a growing population and increasing land size."
…the greater number of citizens and greater sphere of country over which the latter may
be extended." The larger the population, the more representatives.This also means
more dissimilarity of interests which destroys the formation of majority faction.
By reading this essay,it seems to me that Madison cared for affairs of the less
fortunate then the affairs of the better off.