Law Overview- Great Cases + Abraham Lincoln

The most famous document in British history, issued in 1215 by King John. In the form of a charter, it is a reactionary document with a purpose to insure feudal rights and dues to guarantee the King would not encroach upon baronial privileges. It implies that there are laws to protect the rights of people and their communities that the King must observe and obey by. It outlined that everyone shall be guaranteed of trial by a jury and of habeas corpus. It also vaguely outlines statements against oppression of all subjects. It covers trial by peers and removed absolute power of the monarchy. It brought justice to the legal system and paved the way for further developments to come.
One of the fundamental instruments of constitutional law, it settled the struggle between the monarchy and the parliament. The monarch ceased to have decision making powers, hence the creation of government. It outlined that only the parliament has the power to tax. It gave political supremacy to the Parliament. Other important provisions and implications were freedom of speech, freedom to debate in parliament, prohibited cruel and excessive punishment and overall brought justice to all citizens and parliamentarians.
Latin- "have the body". 1862. The most celebrated and important writ in English law, it provides a remedy for violation of personal liberty. It outlines that a person must be bought before the court if being imprisoned. Its sole function is to release an individual from unlawful imprisonment. It tests only whether a prisoner has been accorded due process, not whether they are guilty or not. It is seen generally as a last resort.
At a time in which Britain was being transformed from a country state and becoming very much industrialised, the middle classes emerged as the dominant economic and social group. These groups had no representation in parliament and had no right to vote, and areas with very small populations had sometimes 2 …


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