Iran

Since the days of 6th century BC, Ian has been ruled by absolute monarchs.The shah-in-shah, king of kings, or emperor decided the fate of the empire.Iran's constitutional monarchy, founded in 1906, was ended in 1979. In the same year a new constitution established an Islamic republic in which principles of Islam were to be the foundation for social, political, and economic relations. The constitution was significantly amended in 1989. Iran now has two heads of state, one being a more leading religious figure, the other being a more presidential figure. But ultimately, the religious chief is the real power. This makes Iran a theocracy, which means ruled by priests. A religious leader, called the faqih, oversees the operation of the government. Thefirst faqih was Khomeini, who died in 1989. His successor is selected by an Assembly of Experts, made up of 83 clerics who are popularly elected every eight years.The current faqih of Iran is Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-Khamenei. He may declare war and also names the heads of all state and religious organizations, so therefore controls the judiciary, armed forces, security police, intelligence agencies, radio, and television. Therefore, he is more powerful than Iran's president.
The chief executive and head of state of Iran is a president, who is elected by popular vote for up to two four-year terms. As the constitutions specifies, the president is'the holder of the highest of fiscal power next to the office of the faqih.' Amendments to the constitution in 1989 strengthened the presidency by eliminating the position of prime minister, who was until then the chief executive. The cabinet conducts the real day-to-day work of governance. Almost all new laws, as well as the budget, are devised by the cabinet and submitted to parliament for approval, change, or rejection.
A modern form of government was introduced in Iran after the Persian Revolution of 1906.The const…

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