Australia’s distribution repor

Factors affecting Australia;s distribution of income and wealth
There are many factors affecting the distribution of income (Y) and wealth which can be grouped into either variations in socioeconomic characteristics, the developments in the economy and changes in the labour market.
1. Gender (Despite Equal Pay for Equal Work 1969, inequality still exists)
– The average Y for females is considerably lower than males in major areas of occupation, and even in the same occupation category
– Females receive less % of their Y from earned sources (wages, business, trade etc) and receive more government benefits e.g. single parent assistance
– Y tends to be highest between 25- 54 years (45-54 the highest)
– Males and females 15- 24 less as they have less education and training, and experience
– Different occupations require different levels of educational skills/qualifications
– There is unequal Y distribution across 8 major occupational groups e.g. the highest paid group are the managers and administrators (involve high risk decision making etc) and the lowest are labourers and semi-skilled workers
– Working conditions are important e.g. dangerous, dirty and irregular hours pay higher wages
– Wage differences can occur within same occupational groups, in terms of experience, distant locations or more profitable firms
– Statistics show that migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds have the lowest overall Y, while migrants from English-speaking have the highest
– The point of residence for migrants also has impacts e.g. those from the US, Britain and South Africa (more developed countries…)
– The longer the length of residence in Australia results in a higher average Y
– Aboriginal Australians have the lowest average Y per annum
– Y units range from young single people just out of school, to couples with dependent children, through to the elderly retired single or couples
– According to quintile gro…


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